NanoPi R1

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1 Introduction

  • The NanoPi R1("R1") is a complete open source board developed by FriendlyElec for makers, hobbyists, fans and etc.
  • The NanoPi R1 has one Gbps Ethernet port and one Fast Ethernet port. It has an onboard 2.4G Wi-Fi module. FriendlyElec ported OpenWRT to the R1. With some additional settings it will work like a router.Its good networking performance and features make it a good platform for various network applications.

2 Hardware Spec

  • CPU: Allwinner H3, Quad-core Cortex-A7 Up to 1.2GHz
  • DDR3 RAM: 512MB/1GB
  • Storage: NC/8GB eMMC
  • Network:
    • 10/100/1000M Ethernet x 1,
    • 10/100M Ethernet x 1
  • WiFi: 802.11b/g/n, with SMA antenna interface
  • Bluetooth:4.0 dual mode
  • USB Host: Type-A x2
  • MicroSD Slot x 1
  • MicroUSB: for OTG and power input
  • Debug Serial Port: 3Pin 2.54mm pitch pin-header
  • UART: 4Pin 2.54mm pitch pin-header
  • LED: LED x 3
  • KEY: KEY x 1
  • PC Size: 50.5 x 60mm
  • Power Supply: DC 5V/2A
  • Temperature measuring range: -40℃ to 80℃
  • OS/Software: U-boot,Ubuntu-Core,OpenWRT
  • Weight: xxg

3 Diagram, Layout and Dimension

3.1 Layout

NanoPi R1 Layout

3.2 Board Dimension

NanoPi R1-dimensions.png

For more details refer to:NanoPi_R1 pcb file in dxf format

4 Get Started

4.1 Essentials You Need

Before starting to use your NanoPi R1 get the following items ready

  • NanoPi R1
  • MicroSD Card/TF Card: Class 10 or Above, minimum 8GB SDHC
  • MicroUSB 5V/2A power adapter
  • A host computer running Ubuntu 16.04 64-bit system

4.2 TF Cards We Tested

To make your NanoPi R1 boot and run fast we highly recommend you use a Class10 8GB SDHC TF card or a better one. The following cards are what we used in all our test cases presented here:

  • SanDisk TF 8G Class10 Micro/SD High Speed TF card:

SanDisk microSD 8G

  • SanDisk TF128G MicroSDXC TF 128G Class10 48MB/S:

SanDisk microSD 128G

  • 川宇 8G C10 High Speed class10 micro SD card:

chuanyu microSD 8G

4.3 Install OS

4.3.1 Download Image Files

Go to download link to download the image files under the officail-ROMs directory and the flashing utility under the tools directory:

Image Files FriendlyCore based on UbuntuCore and Linux-4.14 kernel OpenWrt and Linux-4.14 kernel eflasher image which is used to install FriendlyCore(Linux-4.14) to eMMC eflasher image which is used to install OpenWrt(Linux-4.14) to eMMC
Flashing Utility
win32diskimager.rar Windows utility. Under Linux users can use "dd"

4.3.2 Linux Boot from TF
  • FriendlyCore / Debian / Ubuntu are all based on a same Linux distribution and their installation methods are the same.
  • Extract the Linux image and win32diskimager.rar files. Insert a TF card(at least 8G) into a Windows PC and run the win32diskimager utility as administrator. On the utility's main window select your TF card's drive, the wanted image file and click on "write" to start flashing the TF card.
  • Insert this card into your board's BOOT slot and power on (with a 5V/2A power source). If the PWR LED is on and the STAT LED is blinking this indicates your board has successfully booted.

5 How to Use OpenWrt

5.1 Introduction

OpenWrt is a highly extensible GNU/Linux variant for embedded devices. Unlike many other distributions for routers, OpenWrt is built from the ground up to be a full-featured, easily modifiable OS for a router. In practice this means you can have all the features with none of the bloat, powered by a Linux kernel that is more recent than most other distributions. For more details you can refer to OpenWrt website.

5.2 Login OpenWrt

  • Login from serial port

Here is a hardware setup to connect your board to a serial device:
1) Connect your board to a FriendlyElec's PSU_ONECOM module. Both the module's DC port and the board's MicroUSB need to be powered by a 5V/2A power supply.Note: insufficient power supply may not make the system work normally.
2) Connect your board to a FriendlyElec's Matrix-USB2UART module. The board's MicroUSB needs to be powered by a 5V/2A power supply
By default a user logs in as "root" and doesn't need a password for "root". You can set a password for "root" by using the "passwd" command.
When your board is booted for the first time it will automatically extend its TF card's rootfs file system to its max available space:
This will take a while and you need to wait for the process to complete.

  • Login via SSH

A NanoPi R1 that runs FriendlyElec's OpenWrt by default is configured as a secondary router. Its Gbps Ethernet(eth0) is configured as WAN and Fast Ethernet(eth1) is configured as LAN.
If you want to login via SSH you need to connect your R1's Gbps Ethernet to a master router's LAN port. Here is a hardware setup:
We assume the IP address for the board's Gbps Ethernet(eth0) is Run the following command to login via SSH:

$ ssh root@

By default a user logs in as "root" without a password.

  • Login from Web

OpenWrt supports system login from a LuCI Web page. You can refer to <Login via SSH> to configure your system. We assume the IP address for your board's Gbps Ethernet is After type in the IP address in a browser's address bar you will be able to login. Here is what you should see:
By default a users logs in as "root" without a password. Click on the "Login" button you will login.

5.3 Connect to R1's WiFi Hotspot

By default a NanoPi R1 that runs OpenWrt is configured as a secondary router. To achieve better performance you need to install a WiFi antenna to your board. By default the board's WiFi module AP6212 works in the AP mode and its hotspot's name is "OpenWrt". You can use a smart phone to connect to this hotspot without a password and browse the internet.
After your smart phone is successfully connected to the board's WiFi hotspot you can go to "LuCI" -> "Netwrok" -> "Wireless" to check your connection:
By default the WiFi hotspot falls into 192.168.2.x and you can open a browser on your phone and type in the browser's address bar to visit LuCI:

5.4 Connect to R1's LAN Port

By default a NanoPi R1 that runs OpenWrt is configured as a secondary router.Its Fast Ethernet(eth1) is configured as LAN. You can connect a device to R1's LAN port and browse the internet:
You can browser the internet from a NanoPi NEO:

$ ping
64 bytes from icmp_seq=2 ttl=56 time=19.5 ms

5.5 Manage Software Packages

OpenWrt uses the opkg utility to manage software packages. You can run the following command to get help:

$ opkg
Package Manipulation:
        update                  Update list of available packages
        upgrade <pkgs>          Upgrade packages
        install <pkgs>          Install package(s)
        configure <pkgs>        Configure unpacked package(s)
        remove <pkgs|regexp>    Remove package(s)
        flag <flag> <pkgs>      Flag package(s)
         <flag>=hold|noprune|user|ok|installed|unpacked (one per invocation)
Informational Commands:
        list                    List available packages
        list-installed          List installed packages
        list-upgradable         List installed and upgradable packages
        list-changed-conffiles  List user modified configuration files
        files <pkg>             List files belonging to <pkg>
        search <file|regexp>    List package providing <file>
        find <regexp>           List packages whose name or description matches <regexp>
        info [pkg|regexp]       Display all info for <pkg>
        status [pkg|regexp]     Display all status for <pkg>
        download <pkg>          Download <pkg> to current directory

The is just part of a complete list. Here we list some popular commands:

  • Update Package List

Before you install packages you'd better update your system's package list by running the following command:

$ opkg update
  • List available packages for installation:
$ opkg list
  • List installed packages:
$ opkg list-installed
  • Install/Remove packages:
$ opkg install <pkgs>
$ opkg remove <pkgs>
  • List package files:
$ opkg files <pkg>
  • Install LuCI's language packages for Chinese:
$ opkg install luci-i18n-base-zh-cn
  • List changed files:
$ opkg list-changed-conffiles

5.6 Check CPU's Status

  • List CPU's temperature and frequency:
$ cpu_freq
CPU0 online=1 temp=26581 governor=ondemand cur_freq=480000
CPU1 online=1 temp=26581 governor=ondemand cur_freq=480000
CPU2 online=1 temp=26581 governor=ondemand cur_freq=480000
CPU3 online=1 temp=26581 governor=ondemand cur_freq=480000

This information shows there are four CPU cores working and each one's temperature is around 26.5 degrees C. Each one's frequency scaling policy is "ondemand". Each one's frequency is 480MHz.

  • Check System Status on OpenWrt-LuCI Web:

After login OpenWrt-LuCI and click on "Statistics" ---> "Graphs" you will see nearly every component's statistics in the system, e.g:
1) System Load:
2) RAM:
3) CPU Temperature:
This page comes from the "luci-app-statistics" package. "luci-app-statistics" uses the "Collectd" utility to collect statistics and uses the "RRDtool" utility to display them.
You can install the "collectd-mod-*" packages to get more statistics. All the "collectd-mod-*" packages use the same configuration file: /etc/config/luci_statistics。

5.7 Check LED Configuration

  • After login OpenWrt-LuCI and click on "System" ---> "LED Configuration" you will see the LED configuration:


  • By default the LED configuration is as follows:
LED1 heartbeat LED. If it doesn't blink it means the system is dead and you need to reboot the system.
LED2 Status LED for Gbps Ethernet(eth0) WAN port. If WAN works it will be on otherwise it will be off. You can check the "Transmit" / "Receive" box to set it to blink when WAN transmits/receives data.
LED3 Status LED for Fast Ethernet(eth1) LAN port. If LAN works it will be on otherwise it will be off. You can check the "Transmit" / "Receive" box to set it to blink when LAN transmits/receives data.

5.8 Check BUTTON Configuration

FriendlyElec's OpenWrt uses the triggerhappy utility to configure buttons. By default if a button is pressed it will trigger the system to reboot.If the system needs to be rebooted to recover from some errors it is recommended to press the button to reboot the system instead of directly powering off the system.
The triggerhappy utility uses the "/etc/triggerhappy/triggers.d/example.conf" configuration file.

5.9 Check Network->Interfaces Configuration

  • After login OpenWrt-LuCI and click on "Network" ---> "Interfaces" you will be able to check the current network interface's configuration:

The Gbps Ethernet(eth0) is configured as WAN and Fast Ethernet(eth1) is configured as LAN.

  • You can click on "WAN" or "LAN" to configure your board's WAN port or LAN port.

R1_Interfaces_WAN R1_Interfaces_LAN

  • The configurations on the Network->Interfaces page are saved in the "/etc/config/network" file.

5.10 Check Netwrok->Wireless Configuration

  • After login OpenWrt-LuCI and click on "Network" ---> "Wireless" you will be able to check the WiFi hotspot's configuration:

By default the WiFi hotspot's name is "OpenWrt" and you can use a smart phone to test this hotspot without a password.

  • You can change the WiFi hotspot's name by clicking on the "Edit" button and going to "Interface Configuration" ---> "General Setup" ---> "ESSID" to make your change. After you make your change, click on "Save & Apply" to save it.


  • You can set your WiFi hotspot's password by clicking on the "Edit" button and going to "Interface Configuration" ---> "Wireless Security" and setting your encryption in the "Encryption" field and setting your password in the "Key" field. After you make your change, click on "Save & Apply" to save it.


  • You can check all the devices that are connected to your WiFi hotspot in the "Associated Stations" section on the "Network ---> Wireless" page.

R1-Wireless-Associated Stations

  • The configurations on the Network->Wireless page are saved in the "/etc/config/wireless" file.

6 Work with FriendlyCore

6.1 Introduction

FriendlyCore is a light Linux system without X-windows, based on ubuntu core, It uses the Qt-Embedded's GUI and is popular in industrial and enterprise applications.

Besides the regular Ubuntu Core's features FriendlyCore has the following additional features:

  • it integrates Qt4.8;
  • it integrates NetworkManager;
  • it has bluez and Bluetooth related packages;
  • it has alsa packages;
  • it has npi-config;
  • it has RPiGPIO, a Python GPIO module;
  • it has some Python/C demo in /root/ directory;
  • it enables 512M-swap partition;

6.2 FriendlyCore's User Accounts

  • If your board is connected to an HDMI monitor you need to use a USB mouse and keyboard.
  • If you want to do kernel development you need to use a serial communication board, ie a PSU-ONECOM board, which will

For example, NanoPi-M1:
You can use a USB to Serial conversion board too.
Make sure you use a 5V/2A power to power your board from its MicroUSB port:
For example, NanoPi-M1:

  • FriendlyCore User Accounts:

Non-root User:

   User Name: pi
   Password: pi


   User Name: root
   Password: fa

The system is automatically logged in as "pi". You can do "sudo npi-config" to disable auto login.

  • Update packages
$ sudo apt-get update

6.3 Configure System with npi-config

The npi-config is a commandline utility which can be used to initialize system configurations such as user password, system language, time zone, Hostname, SSH switch , Auto login and etc. Type the following command to run this utility.

$ sudo npi-config

Here is how npi-config's GUI looks like:

6.4 Develop Qt Application

Please refer to: How to Build and Install Qt Application for FriendlyELEC Boards

6.5 Setup Program to AutoRun

You can setup a program to autorun on system boot with npi-config:

sudo npi-config

Go to Boot Options -> Autologin -> Qt/Embedded, select Enable and reboot.

6.6 Extend TF Card's Section

When FriendlyCore is loaded the TF card's section will be automatically extended.You can check the section's size by running the following command:

$ df -h

6.7 Transfer files using Bluetooth

Take the example of transferring files to the mobile phone. First, set your mobile phone Bluetooth to detectable status, then execute the following command to start Bluetooth search.:

hcitool scan

Search results look like:

Scanning ...
    2C:8A:72:1D:46:02   HTC6525LVW

This means that a mobile phone named HTC6525LVW is searched. We write down the MAC address in front of the phone name, and then use the sdptool command to view the Bluetooth service supported by the phone:

sdptool browser 2C:8A:72:1D:46:02

Note: Please replace the MAC address in the above command with the actual Bluetooth MAC address of the mobile phone.
This command will detail the protocols supported by Bluetooth for mobile phones. What we need to care about is a file transfer service called OBEX Object Push. Take the HTC6525LVW mobile phone as an example. The results are as follows:

Service Name: OBEX Object Push
Service RecHandle: 0x1000b
Service Class ID List:
  "OBEX Object Push" (0x1105)
Protocol Descriptor List:
  "L2CAP" (0x0100)
  "RFCOMM" (0x0003)
    Channel: 12
  "OBEX" (0x0008)
Profile Descriptor List:
  "OBEX Object Push" (0x1105)
    Version: 0x0100

As can be seen from the above information, the channel used by the OBEX Object Push service of this mobile phone is 12, we need to pass it to the obexftp command, and finally the command to initiate the file transfer request is as follows:

obexftp --nopath --noconn --uuid none --bluetooth -b 2C:8A:72:1D:46:02 -B 12 -put example.jpg

Note: Please replace the MAC address, channel and file name in the above command with the actual one.

After executing the above commands, please pay attention to the screen of the mobile phone. The mobile phone will pop up a prompt for pairing and receiving files. After confirming, the file transfer will start.

Bluetooth FAQ:
1) Bluetooth device not found on the development board, try to open Bluetooth with the following command:

rfkill unblock 0

2) Prompt can not find the relevant command, you can try to install related software with the following command:

apt-get install bluetooth bluez obexftp openobex-apps python-gobject ussp-push

6.8 WiFi

For either an SD WiFi or a USB WiFi you can connect it to your board in the same way. The APXX series WiFi chips are SD WiFi chips. By default FriendlyElec's system supports most popular USB WiFi modules. Here is a list of the USB WiFi modules we tested:

Index Model
1 RTL8188CUS/8188EU 802.11n WLAN Adapter
2 RT2070 Wireless Adapter
3 RT2870/RT3070 Wireless Adapter
4 RTL8192CU Wireless Adapter
5 mi WiFi mt7601

You can use the NetworkManager utility to manage network. You can run "nmcli" in the commandline utility to start it. Here are the commands to start a WiFi connection:

  • Change to root
$ su root
  • Check device list
$ nmcli dev

Note: if the status of a device is "unmanaged" it means that device cannot be accessed by NetworkManager. To make it accessed you need to clear the settings under "/etc/network/interfaces" and reboot your system.

  • Start WiFi
$ nmcli r wifi on
  • Scan Surrounding WiFi Sources
$ nmcli dev wifi
  • Connect to a WiFi Source
$ nmcli dev wifi connect "SSID" password "PASSWORD" ifname wlan0

The "SSID" and "PASSWORD" need to be replaced with your actual SSID and password.If you have multiple WiFi devices you need to specify the one you want to connect to a WiFi source with iface
If a connection succeeds it will be automatically setup on next system reboot.

For more details about NetworkManager refer to this link: Use NetworkManager to configure network settings

If your USB WiFi module doesn't work most likely your system doesn't have its driver. For a Debian system you can get a driver from Debian-WiFi and install it on your system. For a Ubuntu system you can install a driver by running the following commands:

$ apt-get install linux-firmware

In general all WiFi drivers are located at the "/lib/firmware" directory.

6.9 Ethernet Connection

If a board is connected to a network via Ethernet before it is powered on it will automatically obtain an IP with DHCP activated after it is powered up. If you want to set up a static IP refer to: Use NetworkManager to configure network settings

6.10 Set Audio Device

If your system has multiple audio devices such as HDMI-Audio, 3.5mm audio jack and I2S-Codec you can set system's default audio device by running the following commands.

  • After your board is booted run the following commands to install alsa packages:
$ apt-get update
$ apt-get install libasound2
$ apt-get install alsa-base
$ apt-get install alsa-utils
  • After installation is done you can list all the audio devices by running the following command. Here is a similar list you may see after you run the command:
$ aplay -l
card 0: HDMI
card 1: 3.5mm codec
card 2: I2S codec

"card 0" is HDMI-Audio, "card 1" is 3.5mm audio jack and "card 2" is I2S-Codec. You can set default audio device to HDMI-Audio by changing the "/etc/asound.conf" file as follows:

pcm.!default {
    type hw
    card 0
    device 0
ctl.!default {
    type hw
    card 0

If you change "card 0" to "card 1" the 3.5mm audio jack will be set to the default device.
Copy a .wav file to your board and test it by running the following command:

$ aplay /root/Music/test.wav

You will hear sounds from system's default audio device.
If you are using H3/H5/H2+ series board with mainline kernel, the easier way is using npi-config

6.11 Connect to USB Camera(FA-CAM202)

The FA-CAM202 is a 200M USB camera. Connect your board to camera module. Then boot OS, connect your board to a network, log into the board as root and run "mjpg-streamer":

$ cd /root/C/mjpg-streamer
$ make
$ ./

You need to change the script and make sure it uses a correct /dev/videoX node. You can check your camera's node by running the following commands:

$ apt-get install v4l-utils
$ v4l2-ctl -d /dev/video0 -D
Driver Info (not using libv4l2):
        Driver name   : uvcvideo
        Card type     : HC 3358+2100: HC 3358+2100  / USB 2.0 Camera: USB 2.0 Camera
        Bus info      : usb-1c1b000.usb-1

The above messages indicate that "/dev/video0" is camera's device node.The mjpg-streamer application is an open source video steam server. After it is successfully started the following messages will be popped up:

$ ./
 i: Using V4L2 device.: /dev/video0
 i: Desired Resolution: 1280 x 720
 i: Frames Per Second.: 30
 i: Format............: YUV
 i: JPEG Quality......: 90
 o: www-folder-path...: ./www/
 o: HTTP TCP port.....: 8080
 o: username:password.: disabled
 o: commands..........: enabled runs the following two commands:

export LD_LIBRARY_PATH="$(pwd)"
./mjpg_streamer -i "./ -d /dev/video0 -y 1 -r 1280x720 -f 30 -q 90 -n -fb 0" -o "./ -w ./www"

Here are some details for mjpg_streamer's major options:
-i: input device. For example "" means it takes input from a camera;
-o: output device. For example "" means the it transmits data via http;
-d: input device's subparameter. It defines a camera's device node;
-y: input device's subparameter. It defines a camera's data format: 1:yuyv, 2:yvyu, 3:uyvy 4:vyuy. If this option isn't defined MJPEG will be set as the data format;
-r: input device's subparameter. It defines a camera's resolution;
-f: input device's subparameter. It defines a camera's fps. But whether this fps is supported depends on its driver;
-q: input device's subparameter. It defines the quality of an image generated by libjpeg soft-encoding;
-n: input device's subparameter. It disables the dynctrls function;
-fb: input device's subparameter. It specifies whether an input image is displayed at "/dev/fbX";
-w: output device's subparameter. It defines a directory to hold web pages;

In our case the board's IP address was We typed in a browser and were able to view the images taken from the camera's. Here is what you would expect to observe:

6.12 Check CPU's Working Temperature

You can get CPU's working temperature by running the following command:

$ cpu_freq
CPU0 online=1 temp=26581 governor=ondemand cur_freq=480000
CPU1 online=1 temp=26581 governor=ondemand cur_freq=480000
CPU2 online=1 temp=26581 governor=ondemand cur_freq=480000
CPU3 online=1 temp=26581 governor=ondemand cur_freq=480000

This message means there are currently four CPUs working. All of their working temperature is 26.5 degree in Celsius and each one's clock is 480MHz.

6.13 Test Infrared Receiver

Note: Please Check your board if IR receiver exist.
By default the infrared function is disabled you can enable it by using the npi-config utility:

$ npi-config
    6 Advanced Options     Configure advanced settings
        A8 IR              Enable/Disable IR
            ir Enable/Disable ir[enabled]

Reboot your system and test its infrared function by running the following commands:

$ apt-get install ir-keytable
$ echo "+rc-5 +nec +rc-6 +jvc +sony +rc-5-sz +sanyo +sharp +mce_kbd +xmp" > /sys/class/rc/rc0/protocols   # Enable infrared
$ ir-keytable -t
Testing events. Please, press CTRL-C to abort.

"ir-keytable -t" is used to check whether the receiver receives infrared signals. You can use a remote control to send infrared signals to the receiver. If it works you will see similar messages as follows:

1522404275.767215: event type EV_MSC(0x04): scancode = 0xe0e43
1522404275.767215: event type EV_SYN(0x00).
1522404278.911267: event type EV_MSC(0x04): scancode = 0xe0e42
1522404278.911267: event type EV_SYN(0x00).

6.14 Access GPIO Pins/Wirings with WiringNP

The wiringPi library was initially developed by Gordon Henderson in C. It contains libraries to access GPIO, I2C, SPI, UART, PWM and etc. The wiringPi library contains various libraries, header files and a commandline utility:gpio. The gpio utility can be used to read and write GPIO pins.
FriendlyElec integrated this utility in FriendlyCore system allowing users to easily access GPIO pins. For more details refer to WiringNP WiringNP

6.15 Run Qt Demo

Run the following command

$ sudo /opt/QtE-Demo/

Here is what you expect to observe. This is an open source Qt Demo:

7 Developer Guide

7.1 Linux 4.14 BSP

7.2 Linux 3.4 BSP

  • Allwinner's document is located at DVD/doc/,download

7.3 OpenWrt

7.4 ROM

7.5 Hardware access

8 Resources

8.1 Schematics and Datasheets

9 Update Log

9.1 Jan-02-2019

  • Released English Version

9.2 Jan-17-2019

  • Updated section 5