NanoPi R1

From FriendlyARM WiKi
Jump to: navigation, search

查看中文

1 Introduction

Overview
Front
Back
  • The NanoPi R1("R1") is a complete open source board developed by FriendlyElec for makers, hobbyists, fans and etc.
  • The NanoPi R1 has one Gbps Ethernet port and one Fast Ethernet port. It has an onboard 2.4G Wi-Fi module. FriendlyElec ported OpenWRT to the R1. With some additional settings it will work like a router.Its good networking performance and features make it a good platform for various network applications.

2 Hardware Spec

  • CPU: Allwinner H3, Quad-core Cortex-A7 Up to 1.2GHz
  • DDR3 RAM: 512MB/1GB
  • Storage: NC/8GB eMMC
  • Network:
    • 10/100/1000M Ethernet x 1,
    • 10/100M Ethernet x 1
  • WiFi: 802.11b/g/n, with SMA antenna interface
  • Bluetooth:4.0 dual mode
  • USB Host: Type-A x2
  • MicroSD Slot x 1
  • MicroUSB: for OTG and power input
  • Debug Serial Port: 3Pin 2.54mm pitch pin-header
  • UART: 4Pin 2.54mm pitch pin-header
  • LED: LED x 3
  • KEY: KEY x 1
  • PC Size: 50.5 x 60mm
  • Power Supply: DC 5V/2A
  • Temperature measuring range: -20℃ to 70℃
  • OS/Software: U-boot,Ubuntu-Core,OpenWRT
  • Weight: xxg

3 Diagram, Layout and Dimension

3.1 Layout

NanoPi R1 Layout

For more details refer to the document: NanoPi R1 V1.0 1809 Schematic.pdf

3.2 Board Dimension

NanoPi R1-dimensions.png

For more details refer to:NanoPi_R1 pcb file in dxf format

4 Get Started

4.1 Essentials You Need

Before starting to use your NanoPi R1 get the following items ready

  • NanoPi R1
  • MicroSD Card/TF Card: Class 10 or Above, minimum 8GB SDHC
  • MicroUSB 5V/2A power adapter
  • A host computer running Ubuntu 16.04 64-bit system

4.2 TF Cards We Tested

To make your NanoPi R1 boot and run fast we highly recommend you use a Class10 8GB SDHC TF card or a better one. The following cards are what we used in all our test cases presented here:

  • SanDisk TF 8G Class10 Micro/SD High Speed TF card:

SanDisk microSD 8G

  • SanDisk TF128G MicroSDXC TF 128G Class10 48MB/S:

SanDisk microSD 128G

  • 川宇 8G C10 High Speed class10 micro SD card:

chuanyu microSD 8G

4.3 Install OS

4.3.1 Download Image Files

Go to download link to download the image files under the officail-ROMs directory and the flashing utility under the tools directory:

Image Files
nanopi-r1_sd_friendlycore-xenial_4.14_armhf_YYYYMMDD.img.zip FriendlyCore based on UbuntuCore and Linux-4.14 kernel
nanopi-r1_sd_openwrt_4.14_armhf_YYYYMMDD.img.zip OpenWrt and Linux-4.14 kernel
nanopi-r1_eflasher_friendlycore-xenial_4.14_armhf_YYYYMMDD.img.zip eflasher image which is used to install FriendlyCore(Linux-4.14) to eMMC
nanopi-r1_eflasher_openwrt_4.14_armhf_YYYYMMDD.img.zip eflasher image which is used to install OpenWrt(Linux-4.14) to eMMC
Flashing Utility
win32diskimager.rar Windows utility. Under Linux users can use "dd"

4.3.2 Linux

4.3.2.1 Flash to TF
  • FriendlyCore / Debian / Ubuntu / OpenWrt / DietPi are all based on a same Linux distribution and their installation methods are the same.
  • Extract the Linux image and win32diskimager.rar files. Insert a TF card(at least 8G) into a Windows PC and run the win32diskimager utility as administrator. On the utility's main window select your TF card's drive, the wanted image file and click on "write" to start flashing the TF card.

Take "nanopi-r1_sd_friendlycore-xenial_4.14_armhf_YYYYMMDD.img" as an example here is the installation window. Other image files are installed on the similar window:
win32disk-h3

After it is installed you will see the following window:
win32disk-finish

  • Insert this card into your board's BOOT slot and power on (with a 5V/2A power source). If the PWR LED is on and the STAT LED is blinking this indicates your board has successfully booted.
4.3.2.2 Flash to eMMC
4.3.2.2.1 Flash OS with eflasher Utility
  • For more details about eflasher refer to the wiki link: EFlasher
  • Extract the eflasher Image and win32diskimager.rar files. Insert a TF card(at least 4G) into a Windows PC and run the win32diskimager utility as administrator. On the utility's main window select your TF card's drive, the wanted image file and click on "write" to start flashing the TF card.
  • Insert this card into your board's BOOT slot and power on (with a 5V/2A power source). If the green LED is on and the blue LED is blinking this indicates your board has successfully booted.
  • Connect the board to an HDMI monitor or an LCD and a USB mouse, and select an OS to start installation.

eflasher_friendlycore

  • If your board doesn't support HDMI or no monitor is connected you can select an OS by running the following command:
$ su root
$ eflasher

The password for "root" is "fa".

We take "nanopi-r1_eflasher_friendlycore-xenial_4.14_armhf_YYYYMMDD.img" as an example. After you run the "eflasher" command you will see the following messages:

eflasher_friendlycore1
Type "1", select writing friendlycore system to eMMC you will see the following messages:

eflasher_friendlycore2_h3
Type "yes" to start installation:

eflasher_friendlycore3
After it is done power off the system, take off the TF card, power on again your system will be booted from eMMC.

  • If you want to flash other system to eMMC you can download the whole images-for-eflasher directory and extract the package under that directory to the FRIENDLYARM partition of an installation SD card.

eflasher_friendlyarm_h3

5 Work with OpenWrt

5.1 Introduction

OpenWrt is a highly extensible GNU/Linux distribution for embedded devices.Unlike many other distributions for routers, OpenWrt is built from the ground up to be a full-featured, easily modifiable operating system for embedded devices. In practice, this means that you can have all the features you need with none of the bloat, powered by a modern Linux kernel. For more details you can refer to:OpenWrt Website.

5.2 System Login

  • Login via Serial Port

When you do kernel development you'd better get a serial communication board. After you connect your board to a serial communication board you will be able to do development work from a commandline utility.
Here is a hardware setup:
After you connect your board to a serial communication board (e.g. FriendlyElec's serial communication board) you can power the whole system from either the DC port on the serial communication board or the MicroUSB port(if there is one) on your board:
PSU-ONECOM-R1.jpg

or you can use a USB to serial board and power on the whole system at the MicroUSB port with a 5V/2A power:
Matrix-USB2UART nanopi R1.jpg

By default you will login as root without a password. You can use "passwd" to set a password for root.
op_login
On first boot the system will automatically extend the file system on the TF card to the max capacity:
resize_rootfs_userdata
Please wait for this to be done.

  • Login via SSH

In FriendlyElec's OpenWrt system the Ethernet(eth0) is configured as WAN.
Before power on your board make sure your board is connected to a master router's LAN with an Ethernet cable and the eth0 will be assigned an IP address by DHCP.
For example, if your eth0 is assigned an IP address 192.168.1.163 you can login with SSH by running the following command:

$ ssh root@192.168.1.163

You can login without a password.

  • Login via Web

You can login OpenWrt via a LuCI Web page.
After you go through all the steps in <Login via SSH> and get an IP address e.g. 192.168.1.163 for the Ethernet connection, type this IP address in a browser's address bar and you will be able to login OpenWrt-LuCI:
R1-OpenWrt-LuCI
By default you will login as root without a password, just click on "Login" to login.

5.3 Manage Software Packages

OpenWrt has a package management utility: opkg. You can get its details by running the following command:

$ opkg
Package Manipulation:
        update                  Update list of available packages
        upgrade <pkgs>          Upgrade packages
        install <pkgs>          Install package(s)
        configure <pkgs>        Configure unpacked package(s)
        remove <pkgs|regexp>    Remove package(s)
        flag <flag> <pkgs>      Flag package(s)
         <flag>=hold|noprune|user|ok|installed|unpacked (one per invocation)
 
Informational Commands:
        list                    List available packages
        list-installed          List installed packages
        list-upgradable         List installed and upgradable packages
        list-changed-conffiles  List user modified configuration files
        files <pkg>             List files belonging to <pkg>
        search <file|regexp>    List package providing <file>
        find <regexp>           List packages whose name or description matches <regexp>
        info [pkg|regexp]       Display all info for <pkg>
        status [pkg|regexp]     Display all status for <pkg>
        download <pkg>          Download <pkg> to current directory
...

These are just part of the manual. Here are some popular opkg commands.

  • Update Package List

Before you install a package you'd better update the package list:

$ opkg update
  • Check Available Packages
$ opkg list

At the time of writing there are 3241 packages available.

  • Check Installed Packages:
$ opkg list-installed

At the time of writing 124 packages have been installed.

  • Install/Delete Packages:
$ opkg install <pkgs>
$ opkg remove <pkgs>
  • Check Files Contained in Installed Packages:
$ opkg files <pkg>
  • Install Chinese Language Package for LuCI
$ opkg install luci-i18n-base-zh-cn
  • Check Changed Files:
$ opkg list-changed-conffiles

5.4 Check System Status

  • Check CPU Temperature & Frequency via Commandline
$ cpu_freq 
Aavailable frequency(KHz):
        480000 624000 816000 1008000
Current frequency(KHz):
        CPU0 online=1 temp=26548C governor=ondemand freq=624000KHz
        CPU1 online=1 temp=26548C governor=ondemand freq=624000KHz
        CPU2 online=1 temp=26548C governor=ondemand freq=624000KHz
        CPU3 online=1 temp=26548C governor=ondemand freq=624000KHz

These messages mean that there are four CPU cores working online simultaneously. Each core's temperature is 26.5 degrees in Celsius, the scheduling policy is on-demand and the working frequency is 624MHz. You can set the frequency by running the following command:

$ cpu_freq -s 1008000
Aavailable frequency(KHz):
        480000 624000 816000 1008000
Current frequency(KHz):
        CPU0 online=1 temp=36702C governor=userspace freq=1008000KHz
        CPU1 online=1 temp=36702C governor=userspace freq=1008000KHz
        CPU2 online=1 temp=36702C governor=userspace freq=1008000KHz
        CPU3 online=1 temp=36702C governor=userspace freq=1008000KHz

These messages mean four CPU cores are working online. Each core's temperature is 26.5 degrees. Each core's governor is on demand and the frequency is 480 MHz.

  • Check System Status on OpenWrt-LuCI Web Page

After open the OpenWrt-LuCI page, go to "Statistics ---> Graphs" and you will see various system statistics e.g.:
1) System Load:
statistics_system_load
2) RAM:
statistics_memory
3) CPU Temperature:
statistics_thermal
All the statistics listed on the Statistics page are presented by the luci-app-statistics package which uses the Collectd utility to collect data and presents them with the RRDtool utility.
If you want to get more statistics you can install other collectd-mod-* packages. All collectd-mod-* packages use the same configuration file: /etc/config/luci_statistics.

5.5 Check Network->Interfaces Configurations

  • After open the OpenWrt-LuCI page, go to "Network" ---> "Interfaces" and you will see the current network's configurations:

op_interface_eth0_br

  • All the configurations listed on the Network->Interfaces page are stored in the "/etc/config/network" file.

5.6 Check Netwrok->Wireless Configurations

  • After open the OpenWrt-LuCI page, go to Network ---> Wireless and you will see the WiFi hotspot's configurations:

op_wireless
A default WiFi AP's hotspot name looks like "OpenWrt-10:d0:7a:de:3d:92". It doesn't have a password. You can connect your smart phone to it and browse the internet.

  • All the configurations listed on the Network->Wireless page are stored in the "/etc/config/wireless" file.

5.7 Check LED Configurations

  • After open the OpenWrt-LuCI page, go to System ---> LED Configuration and you will see the LED's configurations:

R1_openwrt_led

  • By default the LED is configured as follows:

LED1: heart-beat LED. If this LED doesn't blink it means the system is dead and it needs to be restarted.
LED2: status LED for Gbps Ethernet eth0 WAN. If WAN works this LED will be solid on otherwise it will be off. You can check the "Transmit" / "Receive" box to set the LED to blink when WAN transmits / receives data.
LED3: status LED for Fast Ethernet eth1 LAN. If LAN works this LED will be solid on otherwise it will be off. You can check the "Transmit" / "Receive" box to set the LED to blink when LAN transmits / receives data.

5.8 Check BUTTON Configurations

FriendlyElec's OpenWrt system uses the triggerhappy utility to configure BUTTON's functions. By default when BUTTON is pressed a reboot will be triggered. If the system needs to be rebooted we suggest you use BUTTON to trigger a reboot. This prevents the file system from being damaged by accidental system shutdown.
The configurations for the triggerhappy utility are stored in the "/etc/triggerhappy/triggers.d/example.conf" file.

6 Work with FriendlyCore

6.1 Introduction

FriendlyCore is a light Linux system without X-windows, based on ubuntu core, It uses the Qt-Embedded's GUI and is popular in industrial and enterprise applications.

Besides the regular Ubuntu Core's features FriendlyCore has the following additional features:

  • it integrates Qt4.8;
  • it integrates NetworkManager;
  • it has bluez and Bluetooth related packages;
  • it has alsa packages;
  • it has npi-config;
  • it has RPiGPIO, a Python GPIO module;
  • it has some Python/C demo in /root/ directory;
  • it enables 512M-swap partition;

6.2 System Login

  • If your board is connected to an HDMI monitor you need to use a USB mouse and keyboard.
  • If you want to do kernel development you need to use a serial communication board, ie a PSU-ONECOM board, which will

allow you to operate the board via a serial terminal.Here is a setup where we connect a board to a PC via the PSU-ONECOM and you can power on your board from either the PSU-ONECOM or its MicroUSB: PSU-ONECOM-R1.jpg
You can use a USB to Serial conversion board too.
Make sure you use a 5V/2A power to power your board from its MicroUSB port:
Matrix-USB2UART nanopi R1.jpg

  • FriendlyCore User Accounts:

Non-root User:

   User Name: pi
   Password: pi

Root:

   User Name: root
   Password: fa

The system is automatically logged in as "pi". You can do "sudo npi-config" to disable auto login.

  • Update packages
$ sudo apt-get update

6.3 Configure System with npi-config

The npi-config is a commandline utility which can be used to initialize system configurations such as user password, system language, time zone, Hostname, SSH switch , Auto login and etc. Type the following command to run this utility.

$ sudo npi-config

Here is how npi-config's GUI looks like:
npi-config

6.4 Develop Qt Application

Please refer to: How to Build and Install Qt Application for FriendlyELEC Boards

6.5 Setup Program to AutoRun

You can setup a program to autorun on system boot with npi-config:

sudo npi-config

Go to Boot Options -> Autologin -> Qt/Embedded, select Enable and reboot.

6.6 Extend TF Card's Section

When FriendlyCore is loaded the TF card's section will be automatically extended.You can check the section's size by running the following command:

$ df -h

6.7 Transfer files using Bluetooth

Take the example of transferring files to the mobile phone. First, set your mobile phone Bluetooth to detectable status, then execute the following command to start Bluetooth search.:

hcitool scan


Search results look like:

Scanning ...
    2C:8A:72:1D:46:02   HTC6525LVW

This means that a mobile phone named HTC6525LVW is searched. We write down the MAC address in front of the phone name, and then use the sdptool command to view the Bluetooth service supported by the phone:

sdptool browser 2C:8A:72:1D:46:02

Note: Please replace the MAC address in the above command with the actual Bluetooth MAC address of the mobile phone.
This command will detail the protocols supported by Bluetooth for mobile phones. What we need to care about is a file transfer service called OBEX Object Push. Take the HTC6525LVW mobile phone as an example. The results are as follows:

Service Name: OBEX Object Push
Service RecHandle: 0x1000b
Service Class ID List:
  "OBEX Object Push" (0x1105)
Protocol Descriptor List:
  "L2CAP" (0x0100)
  "RFCOMM" (0x0003)
    Channel: 12
  "OBEX" (0x0008)
Profile Descriptor List:
  "OBEX Object Push" (0x1105)
    Version: 0x0100

As can be seen from the above information, the channel used by the OBEX Object Push service of this mobile phone is 12, we need to pass it to the obexftp command, and finally the command to initiate the file transfer request is as follows:

obexftp --nopath --noconn --uuid none --bluetooth -b 2C:8A:72:1D:46:02 -B 12 -put example.jpg

Note: Please replace the MAC address, channel and file name in the above command with the actual one.

After executing the above commands, please pay attention to the screen of the mobile phone. The mobile phone will pop up a prompt for pairing and receiving files. After confirming, the file transfer will start.

Bluetooth FAQ:
1) Bluetooth device not found on the development board, try to open Bluetooth with the following command:

rfkill unblock 0

2) Prompt can not find the relevant command, you can try to install related software with the following command:

apt-get install bluetooth bluez obexftp openobex-apps python-gobject ussp-push

6.8 WiFi

For either an SD WiFi or a USB WiFi you can connect it to your board in the same way. The APXX series WiFi chips are SD WiFi chips. By default FriendlyElec's system supports most popular USB WiFi modules. Here is a list of the USB WiFi modules we tested:

Index Model
1 RTL8188CUS/8188EU 802.11n WLAN Adapter
2 RT2070 Wireless Adapter
3 RT2870/RT3070 Wireless Adapter
4 RTL8192CU Wireless Adapter
5 mi WiFi mt7601

You can use the NetworkManager utility to manage network. You can run "nmcli" in the commandline utility to start it. Here are the commands to start a WiFi connection:

  • Change to root
$ su root
  • Check device list
$ nmcli dev

Note: if the status of a device is "unmanaged" it means that device cannot be accessed by NetworkManager. To make it accessed you need to clear the settings under "/etc/network/interfaces" and reboot your system.

  • Start WiFi
$ nmcli r wifi on
  • Scan Surrounding WiFi Sources
$ nmcli dev wifi
  • Connect to a WiFi Source
$ nmcli dev wifi connect "SSID" password "PASSWORD" ifname wlan0

The "SSID" and "PASSWORD" need to be replaced with your actual SSID and password.If you have multiple WiFi devices you need to specify the one you want to connect to a WiFi source with iface
If a connection succeeds it will be automatically setup on next system reboot.

For more details about NetworkManager refer to this link: Use NetworkManager to configure network settings

If your USB WiFi module doesn't work most likely your system doesn't have its driver. For a Debian system you can get a driver from Debian-WiFi and install it on your system. For a Ubuntu system you can install a driver by running the following commands:

$ apt-get install linux-firmware

In general all WiFi drivers are located at the "/lib/firmware" directory.


6.9 Ethernet Connection

If a board is connected to a network via Ethernet before it is powered on it will automatically obtain an IP with DHCP activated after it is powered up. If you want to set up a static IP refer to: Use NetworkManager to configure network settings




6.10 Connect to USB Camera(FA-CAM202)

The FA-CAM202 is a 200M USB camera. Connect your board to camera module. Then boot OS, connect your board to a network, log into the board as root and run "mjpg-streamer":

$ cd /root/C/mjpg-streamer
$ make
$ ./start.sh

You need to change the start.sh script and make sure it uses a correct /dev/videoX node. You can check your camera's node by running the following commands:

$ apt-get install v4l-utils
$ v4l2-ctl -d /dev/video0 -D
Driver Info (not using libv4l2):
        Driver name   : uvcvideo
        Card type     : HC 3358+2100: HC 3358+2100  / USB 2.0 Camera: USB 2.0 Camera
        Bus info      : usb-1c1b000.usb-1
	...

The above messages indicate that "/dev/video0" is camera's device node.The mjpg-streamer application is an open source video steam server. After it is successfully started the following messages will be popped up:

 
$ ./start.sh
 i: Using V4L2 device.: /dev/video0
 i: Desired Resolution: 1280 x 720
 i: Frames Per Second.: 30
 i: Format............: YUV
 i: JPEG Quality......: 90
 o: www-folder-path...: ./www/
 o: HTTP TCP port.....: 8080
 o: username:password.: disabled
 o: commands..........: enabled

start.sh runs the following two commands:

export LD_LIBRARY_PATH="$(pwd)"
./mjpg_streamer -i "./input_uvc.so -d /dev/video0 -y 1 -r 1280x720 -f 30 -q 90 -n -fb 0" -o "./output_http.so -w ./www"

Here are some details for mjpg_streamer's major options:
-i: input device. For example "input_uvc.so" means it takes input from a camera;
-o: output device. For example "output_http.so" means the it transmits data via http;
-d: input device's subparameter. It defines a camera's device node;
-y: input device's subparameter. It defines a camera's data format: 1:yuyv, 2:yvyu, 3:uyvy 4:vyuy. If this option isn't defined MJPEG will be set as the data format;
-r: input device's subparameter. It defines a camera's resolution;
-f: input device's subparameter. It defines a camera's fps. But whether this fps is supported depends on its driver;
-q: input device's subparameter. It defines the quality of an image generated by libjpeg soft-encoding;
-n: input device's subparameter. It disables the dynctrls function;
-fb: input device's subparameter. It specifies whether an input image is displayed at "/dev/fbX";
-w: output device's subparameter. It defines a directory to hold web pages;

In our case the board's IP address was 192.168.1.230. We typed 192.168.1.230:8080 in a browser and were able to view the images taken from the camera's. Here is what you would expect to observe:
mjpg-streamer-cam500a

6.11 Check CPU's Working Temperature

You can get CPU's working temperature by running the following command:

$ cpu_freq 
Aavailable frequency(KHz):
        480000 624000 816000 1008000
Current frequency(KHz):
        CPU0 online=1 temp=26548C governor=ondemand freq=624000KHz
        CPU1 online=1 temp=26548C governor=ondemand freq=624000KHz
        CPU2 online=1 temp=26548C governor=ondemand freq=624000KHz
        CPU3 online=1 temp=26548C governor=ondemand freq=624000KHz

This message means there are currently four CPUs working. All of their working temperature is 26.5 degree in Celsius and each one's clock is 624MHz.
Set CPU frequency:

$ cpu_freq -s 1008000
Aavailable frequency(KHz):
        480000 624000 816000 1008000
Current frequency(KHz):
        CPU0 online=1 temp=36702C governor=userspace freq=1008000KHz
        CPU1 online=1 temp=36702C governor=userspace freq=1008000KHz
        CPU2 online=1 temp=36702C governor=userspace freq=1008000KHz
        CPU3 online=1 temp=36702C governor=userspace freq=1008000KHz




7 Developer Guide

7.1 Linux 4.14 BSP

7.2 Linux 3.4 BSP

  • Allwinner's document is located at DVD/doc/allwinner-h3-doc.zip,download

7.3 OpenWrt

7.4 ROM

7.5 Hardware access

8 Resources

8.1 Schematics and Datasheets

9 Update Log

9.1 Jan-02-2019

  • Released English Version

9.2 Jan-17-2019

  • Updated section 5

9.3 April-24-2019

  • Updated section 5.6