NanoPi M1

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Contents

1 Introduction

Overview
Front
Back
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  • The NanoPi M1 is an Allwinner H3 based ARM board designed and released by FriendlyARM for hobbyists, makers and electronic fans. It is only two thirds the size of the Raspberry Pi. It is open source. It works with Ubuntu MATE, Debian and etc.
  • The NanoPi M1 uses the Allwinner H3 Soc. It integrates Ethernet, IR receiver, video/audio output and supports HDMI and AVOUT. It can be powered via the MicroUSB port
  • In such a small board it still integrates rich interfaces and ports. Besides the popular HDMI, Ethernet, USB-Host, USB-OTG, DVP camera interface and AVOUT (audio and video) it has an onboard Microphone, IR receiver, a serial debug port and a Raspberry Pi compatible 40 pin GPIO pin header.

2 Hardware Spec

  • CPU: Allwinner H3, Quad-core Cortex-A7@1.2GHz
  • GPU: Mali400MP2@600MHz,Supports OpenGL ES2.0
  • DDR3 RAM: 512MB/1GB
  • Connectivity: 10/100M Ethernet
  • Audio: 3.5mm audio jack/Via HDMI
  • Microphone: Onboard microphone
  • IR Receiver: Onboard IR receiver
  • USB Host:Type A, USB 2.0 x 3
  • MicroSD Slot x 1
  • MicroUSB: for data transmission and power input, OTG
  • Video Output: HDMI 1.4 1080P, CVBS
  • DVP Camera Interface: 24pin, 0.5mm pitch FPC seat
  • Debug Serial Port: 4Pin, 2.54mm pitch pin header
  • GPIO: 2.54mm spacing 40pin, compatible with Raspberry Pi's GPIO. It includes UART, SPI, I2C, IO etc
  • User Key: GPIO Key x 1, Reset x 1
  • PC Size: 64 x 56mm
  • Power Supply: DC 5V/2A
  • Working Temperature: -30℃ to 70℃
  • OS/Software: u-boot,Ubuntu MATE,Debian

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3 Software Features

3.1 uboot

  • mainline uboot released on May 2017
  • supports fastboot to update uboot

3.2 UbuntuCore 16.04

  • mainline kernel: Linux-4.11.2
  • rpi-monitor: check system status and information
  • npi-config: system configuration utility for setting passwords, language, timezone, hostname, SSH and auto-login,and enabling/disabling i2c, spi, serial and PWM
  • networkmanager: manage network
  • system log output from serial port
  • auto-login with user account "pi" with access to npi-config

3.3 Debian Jessie

  • welcome window with basic system information and status
  • npi-config: system configuration utility for setting passwords, language, timezone, hostname,

3.4 Android

  • supports USB WiFi

4 Diagram, Layout and Dimension

4.1 Layout

NanoPi M1 Layout
  • GPIO Pin Spec
Pin# Name Linux gpio Pin# Name Linux gpio
1 SYS_3.3V 2 VDD_5V
3 I2C0_SDA/GPIOA12 4 VDD_5V
5 I2C0_SCL/GPIOA11 6 GND
7 GPIOG11 203 8 UART1_TX/GPIOG6 198
9 GND 10 UART1_RX/GPIOG7 199
11 UART2_TX/GPIOA0 0 12 GPIOA6 6
13 UART2_RTS/GPIOA2 2 14 GND
15 UART2_CTS/GPIOA3 3 16 UART1_RTS/GPIOG8 200
17 SYS_3.3V 18 UART1_CTS/GPIOG9 201
19 SPI0_MOSI/GPIOC0 64 20 GND
21 SPI0_MISO/GPIOC1 65 22 UART2_RX/GPIOA1 1
23 SPI0_CLK/GPIOC2 66 24 SPI0_CS/GPIOC3 67
25 GND 26 SPDIF-OUT/GPIOA17 17
27 I2C1_SDA/GPIOA19/PCM0_CLK/I2S0_BCK 19 28 I2C1_SCL/GPIOA18/PCM0_SYNC/I2S0_LRCK 18
29 GPIOA20/PCM0_DOUT/I2S0_SDOUT 20 30 GND
31 GPIOA21/PCM0_DIN/I2S0_SDIN 21 32 GPIOA7 7
33 GPIOA8 8 34 GND
35 UART3_CTS/SPI1_MISO/GPIOA16 16 36 UART3_TX/SPI1_CS/GPIOA13 13
37 GPIOA9 9 38 UART3_RTS/SPI1_MOSI/GPIOA15 15
39 GND 40 UART3_RX/SPI1_CLK/GPIOA14 14
  • Debug Port(UART0)
Pin# Name
1 GND
2 VDD_5V
3 UART_TXD0/GPIOA4
4 UART_RXD0/GPIOA5/PWM0
  • DVP Camera IF Pin Spec
Pin# Name Description
1, 2 SYS_3.3V 3.3V power output, to camera modules
7,9,13,15,24 GND Gound, 0V
3 I2C2_SCL I2C Clock Signal
4 I2C2_SDA I2C Data Signal
5 GPIOE15 Regular GPIO, control signals output to camera modules
6 GPIOE14 Regular GPIO, control signals output to camera modules
8 MCLK Clock signals output to camera modules
10 NC Not Connected
11 VSYNC vertical synchronization to CPU from camera modules
12 HREF/HSYNC HREF/HSYNC signal to CPU from camera modules
14 PCLK PCLK signal to CPU from camera modules
16-23 Data bit7-0 data signals
Note:
  1. SYS_3.3V: 3.3V power output
  2. VDD_5V: 5V power input/output. When the external device’s power is greater than the MicroUSB’s the external device is charging the board otherwise the board powers the external device. The input range is 4.7V ~ 5.6V
  3. All pins are 3.3V and output current is 5mA. It can drive small loads. No IO pins can drive a load.
  4. For more details refer to the document: NanoPi-M1-1603B-Schematic.pdf

4.2 Board Dimension

NanoPi-M1-1603B-dimensions.png

For more details please refer to: pcb file in dxf

5 Get Started

5.1 Essentials You Need

Before starting to use your NanoPi M1 get the following items ready

  • NanoPi M1
  • microSD Card/TFCard: Class 10 or Above, minimum 8GB SDHC
  • microUSB power. A 5V/2A power is a must
  • HDMI monitor
  • USB keyboard and mouse
  • A host computer running Ubuntu 16.04 64 bit system

5.2 TF Cards We Tested

To make your NanoPi M1 boot and run fast we highly recommend you use a Class10 8GB SDHC TF card or a better one. The following cards are what we used in all our test cases presented here:

  • SanDisk TF 8G Class10 Micro/SD TF card:

SanDisk MicroSD 8G

  • SanDisk TF128G MicroSDXC TF 128G Class10 48MB/S:

SanDisk MicroSD 128G

  • 川宇 8G C10 High Speed class10 micro SD card:

chuanyu MicroSD 8G

5.3 Install OS

5.3.1 Get Image Files

Visit this link download link to download image files and the flashing utility:

Image Files:
nanopi-m1_sd_friendlycore-xenial_3.4_armhf_YYYYMMDD.img.zip FriendlyCore (base on UbuntuCore) Image File, kernel:Linux-3.4
nanopi-m1_sd_friendlycore-xenial_4.14_armhf_YYYYMMDD.img.zip FriendlyCore (base on UbuntuCore) Image File, kernel:Linux-4.14
nanopi-m1_sd_debian-jessie_3.4_armhf_YYYYMMDD.img.zip Debian-Desktop Image File, kernel:Linux-3.4
nanopi-m1_sd_debian-jessie_4.14_armhf_YYYYMMDD.img.zip Debian-Desktop Image File, kernel:Linux-4.14
nanopi-m1_sd_android_YYYYMMDD.img.zip Android Image File, kernel:Linux-3.4
Flash Utility:
win32diskimager.rar Windows utility for flashing Debian image. Under Linux users can use "dd"
PhoenixCard_V310.rar Windows utility for flashing Android image. Attention: the "dd" command under Linux doesn't work for flashing Android image
HDDLLF.4.40.exe Windows utility for formatting a TF card

5.3.2 Comparison of Linux-3.4 and Linux-4.14

  • Our Linux-3.4 is provided by Allwinner. Allwinner has done a lot of customization work which on one hand contains many features and functions but on the other hand incurs overheat issues. If your application needs to use VPU or GPU you need to use the 3.4 kernel based ROM and use a heat sink together with your board.
  • Our Linux-4.14 is based on the mainline kernel. We will keep this kernel with the latest one released by Linus Torvalds. This kernel is stable and doesn't generate heat that much. If your application doesn't need to use VPU or GPU we recommend you to use this kernel.
  • For more details about the Linux-4.14 kernel refer to: Building U-boot and Linux for H5/H3/H2+

5.3.3 Linux

5.3.3.1 Boot from TF
  • FriendlyCore / Debian / Ubuntu are all based on a same Linux distribution and their installation methods are the same.
  • Extract the Linux image and win32diskimager.rar files. Insert a TF card(at least 8G) into a Windows PC and run the win32diskimager utility as administrator. On the utility's main window select your TF card's drive, the wanted image file and click on "write" to start flashing the TF card.
  • Insert this card into your board's BOOT slot and power on (with a 5V/2A power source). If the PWR LED is on and the STAT LED is blinking this indicates your board has successfully booted.

5.3.4 Android

5.3.4.1 Boot from TF

Note:before make a MicroSD card to an Android image card you need to format this card.

  • On a Windows PC run the HDDLLF.4.40 utility as administrator. Insert a TF card(at least 8G) into this PC and format it. After formatting is done take out the TF card, insert it into the PC again and format it with Windows internal format utility to format it to FAT32. After this formatting is done take out the card.
  • Extract the the Android image and PhoenixCard_V310.rar . Insert the TF card you made in the previous step into a Windows PC and run the PhoenixCard_V310 utility as administrator. On the utility's main window select your TF card's drive, the wanted image file and click on "write" to start flashing the TF card.

PhoenixCard boot.png
(In the screenshot an Android image file for the NanoPi M1 Plus was selected. You need to select a correct image file for your board.)

  • Insert this card into your board' BOOT slot and power on (with a 5V/2A power source). If the green LED is on and the blue LED is blinking this indicates your board has successfully booted.

6 Working with Debian

6.1 Ethernet Connection

  • If the board is connected to a network via Ethernet before it is powered on, it will automatically obtain an IP after it is powered up.

6.2 Wireless Connection

Under Debian you can manage your network with NetworkManager.
After Debian boots click on the network icon on the bottom right of the task bar a NetworkManger menu will pop up and all the available networks will be listed. If there is an active wireless network you will see something similar to the following screenshot:
NetworkManagerIcon
You can click on a WiFI AP and connect your board to it.
For more details refer to:NetworkManager.

For either an SD WiFi or a USB WiFi you can connect it to your board in the same way. The APXX series WiFi chips are SD WiFi chips. By default FriendlyElec's system supports most popular USB WiFi modules. Here is a list of the USB WiFi modules we tested:

Index Model
1 RTL8188CUS/8188EU 802.11n WLAN Adapter
2 RT2070 Wireless Adapter
3 RT2870/RT3070 Wireless Adapter
4 RTL8192CU Wireless Adapter
5 mi WiFi mt7601

You can use the NetworkManager utility to manage network. You can run "nmcli" in the commandline utility to start it. Here are the commands to start a WiFi connection:

  • Change to root
$ su root
  • Check device list
$ nmcli dev

Note: if the status of a device is "unmanaged" it means that device cannot be accessed by NetworkManager. To make it accessed you need to clear the settings under "/etc/network/interfaces" and reboot your system.

  • Start WiFi
$ nmcli r wifi on
  • Scan Surrounding WiFi Sources
$ nmcli dev wifi
  • Connect to a WiFi Source
$ nmcli dev wifi connect "SSID" password "PASSWORD" ifname wlan0

The "SSID" and "PASSWORD" need to be replaced with your actual SSID and password.If you have multiple WiFi devices you need to specify the one you want to connect to a WiFi source with iface
If a connection succeeds it will be automatically setup on next system reboot.

For more details about NetworkManager refer to this link: Use NetworkManager to configure network settings

If your USB WiFi module doesn't work most likely your system doesn't have its driver. For a Debian system you can get a driver from Debian-WiFi and install it on your system. For a Ubuntu system you can install a driver by running the following commands:

$ apt-get install linux-firmware

In general all WiFi drivers are located at the "/lib/firmware" directory.


6.3 Install Debian Packages

We provide a Debian Jessie image. You can install Jessie's packages by commanding "apt-get". If this is your first installation you need to update the package list by running the following command

apt-get update

You can install your preferred packages. For example if you want to install an FTP server you can do this:

apt-get install vsftpd

Note: you can change your download server by editting "/etc/apt/sources.list". You can get a complete server list from [1]. You need to select the one with "armhf".

6.4 Set Audio Device

If your system has multiple audio devices such as HDMI-Audio, 3.5mm audio jack and I2S-Codec you can set system's default audio device by running the following commands.

  • After your board is booted run the following commands to install alsa packages:
$ apt-get update
$ apt-get install libasound2
$ apt-get install alsa-base
$ apt-get install alsa-utils
  • After installation is done you can list all the audio devices by running the following command. Here is a similar list you may see after you run the command:
$ aplay -l
card 0: HDMI
card 1: 3.5mm codec
card 2: I2S codec

"card 0" is HDMI-Audio, "card 1" is 3.5mm audio jack and "card 2" is I2S-Codec. You can set default audio device to HDMI-Audio by changing the "/etc/asound.conf" file as follows:

pcm.!default {
    type hw
    card 0
    device 0
}
 
ctl.!default {
    type hw
    card 0
}

If you change "card 0" to "card 1" the 3.5mm audio jack will be set to the default device.
Copy a .wav file to your board and test it by running the following command:

$ aplay /root/Music/test.wav

You will hear sounds from system's default audio device.
If you are using H3/H5/H2+ series board with mainline kernel, the easier way is using npi-config

6.5 Login via VNC and SSH

If your board is not connected to a display device you can login to your board from a mobile phone. You need to download and install a "VNC Viewer" from here on a mobile phone and login to the board via VNC at port 1. Its default password is "fa123456".
Here is a screenshot which shows how it looks like when users login to the board from an iPhone via VNC:
VNC to NanoPi2
In our case our board's IP address is 192.168.1.230. You can login via SSH by running the following commands:

$ ssh root@192.168.1.230

The password is fa.

6.6 Connect to USB Camera(FA-CAM202)

The FA-CAM202 is a 200M USB camera.
Refer to this link for more details on how to connect to a FA-CAM202: Connect NanoPi M1 to DVP Camera CAM500B
In Debian, click on "other"-->"xawtv" on the left bottom of the GUI and the USB Camera application will be started. After enter "welcome to xawtv!" click on "OK" to start exploring.

6.7 Use OpenCV to Access Camera

  • The full name of "OpenCV" is Open Source Computer Vision Library and it is a cross platform vision library.
  • Make sure your board is connected to the internet and an HDMI monitor, Boot Debian and login.
  • Install OpenCV libraries:
$ apt-get update
$ apt-get install libcv-dev libopencv-dev
  • Refer to the instructions in the previous sections to make sure the camera works
  • Compile and run a code sample(Official Code Sample in C++ provided by the OpenCV organization):
$ cd /home/fa/Documents/opencv-demo
$ make
$ ./demo

6.8 Connect to DVP Camera CAM500B

The CAM500B camera module is a 5M-pixel camera with DVP interface. For more tech details about it you can refer to Matrix - CAM500B.
connect your H3 board to a CAM500B. Then boot OS, connect your board to a network, log into the board as root and run "mjpg-streamer":

$ cd /root/mjpg-streamer
$ make
$ ./start.sh

The mjpg-streamer application is an open source video steam server. After it is successfully started the following messages will be popped up:

 
 i: Using V4L2 device.: /dev/video0
 i: Desired Resolution: 1280 x 720
 i: Frames Per Second.: 30
 i: Format............: YUV
 i: JPEG Quality......: 90
 o: www-folder-path...: ./www/
 o: HTTP TCP port.....: 8080
 o: username:password.: disabled
 o: commands..........: enabled

In our case the board's IP address was 192.168.1.230. We typed 192.168.1.230:8080 in a browser and were able to view the images taken from the camera's. Here is what you would expect to observe:
mjpg-streamer-cam500a
The mjpg-streamer utility uses libjpeg to software-encode steam data. The Linux-4.x based ROM currently doesn't support hardware-encoding. If you use a Linux-3.x based ROM you can use the ffmpeg utility to hardware-encode stream data and this can greatly release CPU's resources and speed up encoding:

$ ffmpeg -t 30 -f v4l2 -channel 0 -video_size 1280x720 -i /dev/video0 -pix_fmt nv12 -r 30 \
        -b:v 64k -c:v cedrus264 test.mp4

By default it records a 30-second video. Typing "q" stops video recording. After recording is stopped a test.mp4 file will be generated.

6.9 Check CPU's Working Temperature

You can use the following command to read H3's temperature and frequency

cpu_freq

6.10 Test GPU

Note: this function is only supported in Allwinner Linux-3.4.y.
After OS loads please login from a terminal and run the following command:

glmark2-es2

m1-gpu-glmark2

6.11 Test VPU

Note: this function is only supported in Allwinner Linux-3.4.y
Visit this link download link to download files
After OS is loaded login from a terminal and run the following commands:

$ sudo apt-get install mpv
$ video_play mpv ./big_buck_bunny_1080p_H264_AAC_25fps_7200K.MP4

In our test it could do hard coding and play 1080P video fluently.

7 Work with FriendlyCore

7.1 Introduction

FriendlyCore is a light Linux system without X-windows, based on ubuntu core, It uses the Qt-Embedded's GUI and is popular in industrial and enterprise applications.

Besides the regular Ubuntu core's features our FriendlyCore has the following additional features:

  • it supports our LCDs with both capacitive touch and resistive touch(S700, X710, HD702, S430, HD101 and S70)
  • it supports WiFi
  • it supports Ethernet
  • it supports Bluetooth and has been installed with bluez utilities
  • it supports audio playing
  • it supports Qt 5.10.0 EGLES and OpenGL ES1.1/2.0 (Only for S5P4418/S5P6818)

7.2 FriendlyCore's User Accounts

  • If your board is connected to an HDMI monitor you need to use a USB mouse and keyboard.
  • If you want to do kernel development you need to use a serial communication board, ie a PSU-ONECOM board, which will

allow you to operate the board via a serial terminal.Here is a setup where we connect a board to a PC via the PSU-ONECOM and you can power on your board from either the PSU-ONECOM or its MicroUSB: PSU-ONECOM-M1.jpg
You can use a USB to Serial conversion board too.
Make sure you use a 5V/2A power to power your board from its MicroUSB port:
For example, NanoPi-M1:
USB2UART-NEO2.jpg

  • FriendlyCore User Accounts:

Non-root User:

   User Name: pi
   Password: pi

Root:

   User Name: root
   Password: fa

The system is automatically logged in as "pi". You can do "sudo npi-config" to disable auto login.

  • Update packages
$ sudo apt-get update

7.3 Configure System with npi-config

The npi-config is a commandline utility which can be used to initialize system configurations such as user password, system language, time zone, Hostname, SSH switch , Auto login and etc. Type the following command to run this utility.

$ sudo npi-config

Here is how npi-config's GUI looks like:
npi-config

7.4 Develop Qt Application

Please refer to: How to Build and Install Qt Application for FriendlyELEC Boards

7.5 Setup Program to AutoRun

You can setup a program to autorun on system boot with npi-config:

sudo npi-config

Go to Boot Options -> Autologin -> Qt/Embedded, select Enable and reboot.

7.6 Extend TF Card's Section

When FriendlyCore is loaded the TF card's section will be automatically extended.You can check the section's size by running the following command:

$ df -h

7.7 WiFi

For either an SD WiFi or a USB WiFi you can connect it to your board in the same way. The APXX series WiFi chips are SD WiFi chips. By default FriendlyElec's system supports most popular USB WiFi modules. Here is a list of the USB WiFi modules we tested:

Index Model
1 RTL8188CUS/8188EU 802.11n WLAN Adapter
2 RT2070 Wireless Adapter
3 RT2870/RT3070 Wireless Adapter
4 RTL8192CU Wireless Adapter
5 mi WiFi mt7601

You can use the NetworkManager utility to manage network. You can run "nmcli" in the commandline utility to start it. Here are the commands to start a WiFi connection:

  • Change to root
$ su root
  • Check device list
$ nmcli dev

Note: if the status of a device is "unmanaged" it means that device cannot be accessed by NetworkManager. To make it accessed you need to clear the settings under "/etc/network/interfaces" and reboot your system.

  • Start WiFi
$ nmcli r wifi on
  • Scan Surrounding WiFi Sources
$ nmcli dev wifi
  • Connect to a WiFi Source
$ nmcli dev wifi connect "SSID" password "PASSWORD" ifname wlan0

The "SSID" and "PASSWORD" need to be replaced with your actual SSID and password.If you have multiple WiFi devices you need to specify the one you want to connect to a WiFi source with iface
If a connection succeeds it will be automatically setup on next system reboot.

For more details about NetworkManager refer to this link: Use NetworkManager to configure network settings

If your USB WiFi module doesn't work most likely your system doesn't have its driver. For a Debian system you can get a driver from Debian-WiFi and install it on your system. For a Ubuntu system you can install a driver by running the following commands:

$ apt-get install linux-firmware

In general all WiFi drivers are located at the "/lib/firmware" directory.


7.8 Ethernet Connection

If a board is connected to a network via Ethernet before it is powered on it will automatically obtain an IP with DHCP activated after it is powered up. If you want to set up a static IP refer to: Use NetworkManager to configure network settings

7.9 WiringPi and Python Wrapper

7.10 Set Audio Device

If your system has multiple audio devices such as HDMI-Audio, 3.5mm audio jack and I2S-Codec you can set system's default audio device by running the following commands.

  • After your board is booted run the following commands to install alsa packages:
$ apt-get update
$ apt-get install libasound2
$ apt-get install alsa-base
$ apt-get install alsa-utils
  • After installation is done you can list all the audio devices by running the following command. Here is a similar list you may see after you run the command:
$ aplay -l
card 0: HDMI
card 1: 3.5mm codec
card 2: I2S codec

"card 0" is HDMI-Audio, "card 1" is 3.5mm audio jack and "card 2" is I2S-Codec. You can set default audio device to HDMI-Audio by changing the "/etc/asound.conf" file as follows:

pcm.!default {
    type hw
    card 0
    device 0
}
 
ctl.!default {
    type hw
    card 0
}

If you change "card 0" to "card 1" the 3.5mm audio jack will be set to the default device.
Copy a .wav file to your board and test it by running the following command:

$ aplay /root/Music/test.wav

You will hear sounds from system's default audio device.
If you are using H3/H5/H2+ series board with mainline kernel, the easier way is using npi-config

7.11 Connect to DVP Camera CAM500B

For NanoPi-M1 the CAM500B can work with both Linux-3.4 Kernel and Linux-4.14 Kernel.
The CAM500B camera module is a 5M-pixel camera with DVP interface. For more tech details about it you can refer to Matrix - CAM500B.

connect your board to camera module. Then boot OS, connect your board to a network, log into the board as root and run "mjpg-streamer":

$ cd /root/mjpg-streamer
$ make
$ ./start.sh

You need to change the start.sh script and make sure it uses a correct /dev/videoX node. You can check your camera's node by running the following commands:

$ apt-get install v4l-utils
$ v4l2-ctl -d /dev/video0 -D
Driver Info (not using libv4l2):
        Driver name   : sun6i-video
        Card type     : sun6i-csi
        Bus info      : platform:camera
        Driver version: 4.14.0
	...

The above messages indicate that "/dev/video0" is camera's device node.The mjpg-streamer application is an open source video steam server. After it is successfully started the following messages will be popped up:

 
$ ./start.sh
 i: Using V4L2 device.: /dev/video0
 i: Desired Resolution: 1280 x 720
 i: Frames Per Second.: 30
 i: Format............: YUV
 i: JPEG Quality......: 90
 o: www-folder-path...: ./www/
 o: HTTP TCP port.....: 8080
 o: username:password.: disabled
 o: commands..........: enabled

start.sh runs the following two commands:

export LD_LIBRARY_PATH="$(pwd)"
./mjpg_streamer -i "./input_uvc.so -d /dev/video0 -y 1 -r 1280x720 -f 30 -q 90 -n -fb 0" -o "./output_http.so -w ./www"

Here are some details for mjpg_streamer's major options:
-i: input device. For example "input_uvc.so" means it takes input from a camera;
-o: output device. For example "output_http.so" means the it transmits data via http;
-d: input device's subparameter. It defines a camera's device node;
-y: input device's subparameter. It defines a camera's data format: 1:yuyv, 2:yvyu, 3:uyvy 4:vyuy. If this option isn't defined MJPEG will be set as the data format;
-r: input device's subparameter. It defines a camera's resolution;
-f: input device's subparameter. It defines a camera's fps. But whether this fps is supported depends on its driver;
-q: input device's subparameter. It defines the quality of an image generated by libjpeg soft-encoding;
-n: input device's subparameter. It disables the dynctrls function;
-fb: input device's subparameter. It specifies whether an input image is displayed at "/dev/fbX";
-w: output device's subparameter. It defines a directory to hold web pages;

In our case the board's IP address was 192.168.1.230. We typed 192.168.1.230:8080 in a browser and were able to view the images taken from the camera's. Here is what you would expect to observe:
mjpg-streamer-cam500a
The mjpg-streamer utility uses libjpeg to software-encode steam data. The Linux-4.14 based ROM currently doesn't support hardware-encoding. If you use a H3 boards with Linux-3.4 based ROM you can use the ffmpeg utility to hardware-encode stream data and this can greatly release CPU's resources and speed up encoding:

$ ffmpeg -t 30 -f v4l2 -channel 0 -video_size 1280x720 -i /dev/video0 -pix_fmt nv12 -r 30 \
        -b:v 64k -c:v cedrus264 test.mp4

By default it records a 30-second video. Typing "q" stops video recording. After recording is stopped a test.mp4 file will be generated.

7.12 Connect to USB Camera(FA-CAM202)

The FA-CAM202 is a 200M USB camera. Connect your board to camera module. Then boot OS, connect your board to a network, log into the board as root and run "mjpg-streamer":

$ cd /root/mjpg-streamer
$ make
$ ./start.sh

You need to change the start.sh script and make sure it uses a correct /dev/videoX node. You can check your camera's node by running the following commands:

$ apt-get install v4l-utils
$ v4l2-ctl -d /dev/video0 -D
Driver Info (not using libv4l2):
        Driver name   : uvcvideo
        Card type     : HC 3358+2100: HC 3358+2100  / USB 2.0 Camera: USB 2.0 Camera
        Bus info      : usb-1c1b000.usb-1
	...

The above messages indicate that "/dev/video0" is camera's device node.The mjpg-streamer application is an open source video steam server. After it is successfully started the following messages will be popped up:

 
$ ./start.sh
 i: Using V4L2 device.: /dev/video0
 i: Desired Resolution: 1280 x 720
 i: Frames Per Second.: 30
 i: Format............: YUV
 i: JPEG Quality......: 90
 o: www-folder-path...: ./www/
 o: HTTP TCP port.....: 8080
 o: username:password.: disabled
 o: commands..........: enabled

start.sh runs the following two commands:

export LD_LIBRARY_PATH="$(pwd)"
./mjpg_streamer -i "./input_uvc.so -d /dev/video0 -y 1 -r 1280x720 -f 30 -q 90 -n -fb 0" -o "./output_http.so -w ./www"

Here are some details for mjpg_streamer's major options:
-i: input device. For example "input_uvc.so" means it takes input from a camera;
-o: output device. For example "output_http.so" means the it transmits data via http;
-d: input device's subparameter. It defines a camera's device node;
-y: input device's subparameter. It defines a camera's data format: 1:yuyv, 2:yvyu, 3:uyvy 4:vyuy. If this option isn't defined MJPEG will be set as the data format;
-r: input device's subparameter. It defines a camera's resolution;
-f: input device's subparameter. It defines a camera's fps. But whether this fps is supported depends on its driver;
-q: input device's subparameter. It defines the quality of an image generated by libjpeg soft-encoding;
-n: input device's subparameter. It disables the dynctrls function;
-fb: input device's subparameter. It specifies whether an input image is displayed at "/dev/fbX";
-w: output device's subparameter. It defines a directory to hold web pages;

In our case the board's IP address was 192.168.1.230. We typed 192.168.1.230:8080 in a browser and were able to view the images taken from the camera's. Here is what you would expect to observe:
mjpg-streamer-cam500a

7.13 Check CPU's Working Temperature

You can get CPU's working temperature by running the following command:

$ cpu_freq
CPU0 online=1 temp=26581 governor=ondemand cur_freq=480000
CPU1 online=1 temp=26581 governor=ondemand cur_freq=480000
CPU2 online=1 temp=26581 governor=ondemand cur_freq=480000
CPU3 online=1 temp=26581 governor=ondemand cur_freq=480000

This message means there are currently four CPUs working. All of their working temperature is 26.5 degree in Celsius and each one's clock is 480MHz.

7.14 Test Watchdog

You can test watchdog by running the following commands:

$ cd /root/demo/watchdog/
$ gcc watchdog_demo.c -o watchdog_demo
$ ./watchdog_demo /dev/watchdog0 10
Set timeout: 10 seconds
Get timeout: 10 seconds
System will reboot in 10 second

System will reboot in 10 seconds.

7.15 Test Infrared Receiver

Note: Please Check your board if IR receiver exist.
By default the infrared function is disabled you can enable it by using the npi-config utility:

$ npi-config
    6 Advanced Options     Configure advanced settings
        A8 IR              Enable/Disable IR
            ir Enable/Disable ir[enabled]

Reboot your system and test its infrared function by running the following commands:

$ apt-get install ir-keytable
$ echo "+rc-5 +nec +rc-6 +jvc +sony +rc-5-sz +sanyo +sharp +mce_kbd +xmp" > /sys/class/rc/rc0/protocols   # Enable infrared
$ ir-keytable -t
Testing events. Please, press CTRL-C to abort.

"ir-keytable -t" is used to check whether the receiver receives infrared signals. You can use a remote control to send infrared signals to the receiver. If it works you will see similar messages as follows:

1522404275.767215: event type EV_MSC(0x04): scancode = 0xe0e43
1522404275.767215: event type EV_SYN(0x00).
1522404278.911267: event type EV_MSC(0x04): scancode = 0xe0e42
1522404278.911267: event type EV_SYN(0x00).

7.16 Read CHIP ID

As for Allwinner H2+/H3/H5/ SoCs each of these CPUs has an internal 16-btye CHIP ID which can be read by running the following commands in the Linux-4.14 kernel:

$ apt-get install bsdmainutils
$ hexdump /sys/bus/nvmem/devices/sunxi-sid0/nvmem 
0000000 8082 0447 0064 04c3 3650 ce0a 1e28 2202
0000010 0002 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000
0000020 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000
0000030 0000 0008 0508 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000
0000040 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000

"8082 0447 0064 04c3 3650 ce0a 1e28 2202" is the 16-byte CHIP ID.

7.17 Access GPIO Pins/Wirings with WiringNP

The wiringPi library was initially developed by Gordon Henderson in C. It contains libraries to access GPIO, I2C, SPI, UART, PWM and etc. The wiringPi library contains various libraries, header files and a commandline utility:gpio. The gpio utility can be used to read and write GPIO pins.
FriendlyElec integrated this utility in FriendlyCore system allowing users to easily access GPIO pins. For more details refer to WiringNP WiringNP

7.18 Run Qt Demo

Run the following command

$ sudo /opt/QtE-Demo/run.sh

Here is what you expect to observe. This is an open source Qt Demo:
K2-QtE

8 Make Your Own Debian

8.1 Use Linux-4.14 BSP

The NanoPi M1 has gotten support for kernel Linux-4.14. For more details about how to use mainline u-boot and Linux-4.14 refer to :Building U-boot and Linux for H5/H3/H2+

8.2 Use Allwinner's Linux-3.4 BSP

8.2.1 Preparations

Visit this link [2] and enter the "sources/nanopi-H3-bsp" directory and download all the source code.Use the 7-zip utility to uncompress it and a lichee directory and an Android directory will be generated.You can check that by running the following command:

$ ls ./
android lichee

Or you can get it from our github:

$ git clone https://github.com/friendlyarm/h3_lichee.git lichee

Note: "lichee" is the project name named by Allwinner for its CPU's source code which contains the source code of U-boot, Linux kernel and various scripts.

8.2.2 Install Cross Compiler

Visit this site download link, enter the "toolchain" directory, download the cross compiler "gcc-linaro-arm.tar.xz" and copy it to the "lichee/brandy/toochain/" directory.

8.2.3 Compile lichee Source Code

Compilation of the H3's BSP source code must be done under a PC running a 64-bit Linux.The following cases were tested on Ubuntu-14.04 LTS-64bit:

$ sudo apt-get install gawk git gnupg flex bison gperf build-essential \
zip curl libc6-dev libncurses5-dev:i386 x11proto-core-dev \
libx11-dev:i386 libreadline6-dev:i386 libgl1-mesa-glx:i386 \
libgl1-mesa-dev g++-multilib mingw32 tofrodos \
python-markdown libxml2-utils xsltproc zlib1g-dev:i386

Enter the lichee directory and run the following command to compile the whole package:

$ cd lichee
$ ./build.sh -p sun8iw7p1 -b nanopi-h3

After this compilation succeeds a u-boot, Linux kernel and kernel modules will be generated
Note: the lichee directory contains a cross-compiler we have setup. When you compile the source code it will automatically call this cross-compiler.


8.2.4 Compile U-boot

Note:you need to compile the whole lichee directory before you can compile U-boot individually.
You can run the following commands to compile U-boot:

$ cd lichee/fa_tools/
$ ./build.sh -b nanopi-m1-plus -p linux -t u-boot

The gen_script.sh script patches the U-boot with Allwinner features. A U-boot without these features cannot work.
Type the following command to update the U-boot on the MicroSD card:

$ cd lichee/fa_tools/
$ ./fuse.sh -d /dev/sdX -p linux -t u-boot

Note: you need to replace "/dev/sdx" with the device name in your system.

8.2.5 Compile Linux Kernel

Note:you need to compile the whole lichee directory before you can compile Linux kernel individually.
If you want to compile the Linux kernel run the following command:

$ cd lichee/fa_tools/
$ ./build.sh -b nanopi-m1 -p linux -t kernel

After the compilation is done a boot.img and its kernel modules will be generated under "linux-3.4/output".

8.2.6 Clean Source Code

$ cd lichee/fa_tools/
$ ./build.sh -b nanopi-m1 -p linux -t clean

9 Applications under Android

9.1 USB WiFi

The rtl8188etv/rtl8188eu USB WiFi modules are supported in Android.

9.2 IR Controller(RC-100)

You can use FriendlyARM's IR controller(RC-100) to navigate the Android system.
Here is a list of the function keys on the RC-100 IR controller

Key Function
POWER On/Off
F1 Search
F2 Open Browser
F3 Enable/Disable Mouse
UP Move Up
DOWN Move Down
LEFT Move Left
RIGHT Move Right
OK OK
Volume- Turn Down Volume
Mute Mute
Volume+ Turn Up Volume
SETTING Go to Setting Window
HOME Go to Home Window
BACK Go Back to the Previous Window

After Android is loaded for the first time you need to follow the prompts on Android's GUI to enter the main window and then press F3 to enable mouse and complete the setup process by navigating "up", "down", "left", "right" and "OK".

9.3 Play 4K Video

Visit this the test-video directory of this link download link and download the 4K video file: 4K-Chimei-inn-60mbps.mp4 and copy it to an SD card or USB drive.
Boot Android on your M1(512M RAM) and insert this SD card or USB drive to your M1. After locate the 4K video file with ESFileExplorer click on and play it with Android's Gallery player.
In our test playing this 4K video file from a USB drive worked better.

10 Make Your Own Android

10.1 Preparations

  • Compilation of the H3's BSP source code must be done under a PC running a 64-bit Linux.The following cases were tested on Ubuntu-14.04 LTS-64bit:
$ sudo apt-get install gawk git gnupg flex bison gperf build-essential \
zip curl libc6-dev libncurses5-dev:i386 x11proto-core-dev \
libx11-dev:i386 libreadline6-dev:i386 libgl1-mesa-glx:i386 \
libgl1-mesa-dev g++-multilib mingw32 tofrodos \
python-markdown libxml2-utils xsltproc zlib1g-dev:i386
  • Generating an Android image relies on the scripts in the lichee's source code. Therefore you need to clone lichee's source code:
$ git clone https://github.com/friendlyarm/h3_lichee.git lichee

Note:lichee is the name of the project in which Allwinner provides support for its CPUs. The lichee source code includes the source code of U-boot, Linux and various scripts. You cannot rename the "lichee" directory.

  • Clone Android Source Code:
$ git clone https://gitlab.com/friendlyelec/h3_android-4.4 android

Since generating an Android image relies on the scripts in the lichee's source code. Therefore you need to clone the Android source code under the same directory where lichee is located and name the cloned directory "android":

$ ls ./
android lichee
  • Install Cross Compiler:

In order to compile the lichee source code you need to visit this site download link, enter the "toolchain" directory, download the cross compiler "gcc-linaro-arm.tar.xz" and copy it to the "lichee/brandy/toochain/" directory.

10.2 Compile Android

  • Setup Environment

Run the following commands on a host PC running 64-bit Ubuntu-14.04 LTS-64bit:

$ sudo apt-get install bison g++-multilib git gperf libxml2-utils make python-networkx zip flex libncurses5-dev zlib1g-dev gawk minicom

For more details refer to:android_initializing

  • Install JDK

We used the JDK1.6.0_45. You can get it from Oracle: Oracle JDK . In our test we installed it in the /usr/lib/jvm/ directory.

  • Compile System
$ cd lichee/fa_tools/
$ ./build.sh -b nanopi-m1 -p android -t all            # compile lichee's source code and this will generate a kernel and drivers for Android.
$ cd ../../android
$ export PATH=/usr/lib/jvm/jdk1.6.0_45/bin:$PATH
$ ./build.sh -b nanopi-m1			    # compile android's source code and this will generate an Android image file.

After the above commands are finished an Android image "sun8iw7p1_android_nanopi-m1_uart0.img" will be generated under the "lichee/tools/pack/" directory.

10.3 Clean Source Code

$ cd lichee/fa_tools/
$ ./build.sh -b nanopi-m1 -p android -t clean

11 More OS Support

11.1 FriendlyCore

Ubuntu Core with Qt-Embedded is a light Linux system without X-windows. It uses the Qt-Embedded's GUI and is popular in industrial and enterprise applications.

Besides the regular Ubuntu core's features our Ubuntu-Core has the following additional features:

  • it supports our LCDs with both capacitive touch and resistive touch(S700, X710, S70)
  • it supports WiFi
  • it supports Ethernet
  • it supports Bluetooth and has been installed with bluez utilities
  • it supports audio playing

For more details refer to Ubuntu Core with Qt-Embedded.

Flash FriendlyCore to TF Card:

  • Download the firmware nanopi-m1-core-qte-sd4g-20160628.img.zip (under official-ROMs) click to download
  • Uncompress the file and flash the image to a TF card with win32diskimager.
  • Insert this card to your NanoPi M1, power on the board and you will be able to play with your UbuntuCore
  • Login name is root or fa and the password is fa

To work with a CAM500B camera under UbuntuCore the steps are the same as those under Debian.

For more details visit Ubuntu Core with Qt-Embedded.

11.2 Ubuntu-MATE

Ubuntu-Mate is a Ubuntu variant and its GUI is Mate-desktop. You can login via SSH when you connect a NanoPi M1 to an HDMI monitor
FriendlyARM doesn't provide technical support for it

  • Go to this link download link to download the image file nanopi-m1-ubuntu-mate-sd4g.img.zip
  • Uncompress it and flash the image file to a TF card with win32diskimager under Windows
  • After it is done you can boot your NanoPi M1 with this card
  • Login name: "root" or "fa", Password: fa

MATE-desktop

11.3 DietPi_NanoPiNEO-armv7-(Jessie)

DietPi is an extremely lightweight Debian Jessie OS. Its image file starts at 400MB and nearly 3x lighter than 'Raspbian Lite'.It is pre-installed with DietPi-RAMLog. These features enable users to get the best performance of a device.
The following steps are for reference only. FriendlyElec doesn't provide technical support for them.
Installation guide:

  • Download the image file "DietPi_NanoPiNEO-armv7-(Jessie)" from DietPi_NanoPiNEO-armv7-(Jessie)
  • Extract the package and use the win32diskimager to write it to a MicroSD card under Windows.
  • Insert this MicroSD card to your NanoPi M1 and power up.

Username:root , Password: dietpi

11.4 Debian8(Jacer)

Debian8(Jacer) is a Debian 8 variant developed by a developer "Jacer". It uses Debian 8's desktop and has good support for the Chinese language. Users need to run this OS with an HDMI monitor and can login to the system via SSH.
FriendlyARM doesn't provide technical support for it.

  • Please visit here :download link to download its image file Debian8(unofficial-Jacer).rar.
  • Uncompress it and flash the image file to a TF card with win32diskimager under Windows.
  • After it is done you can boot your NanoPi M1 with this card
  • Login name: "fa", Password: fa

Note: When the NanoPi M1 is connected to an HDMI monitor and runs Debian8(Jacer) we don't suggest login to the system as root. If you do that the HDMI monitor will show black instead of a Debian8 GUI;
Debian8(Jacer) is integrated with GPU drivers, H264 and H265 hard decoding code. It defaults to the HDMI 720P configuration. If you want to modify its resolution to 1080P you can set the "HDMI MODE =" setting in the script.fex (under the "/boot" section) to the 1080P definition and use the corresponding script.bin file. For more details refer to the h3disp.sh file;
Debian8(Jacer) supports these WiFi card models: 8192cu, 8188cus, 8188eu, rt3070.
Debian8(Jacer)has the following support too:

  • 1.Mali400 GPU driver
  • 2.mpv hard decoding H264, H265
  • 3.Chromium and flash
  • 4.Netease's feeluown
  • 5.Games such as Chess and Minesweeper
  • 6.retroarch game simulator
  • 7.Virtual memory
  • 8.Dynamic frequency scaling
  • 9.aria2 download utility
  • 10.samba
  • 11.WiFi cards: 8192cu/8188cus/8188eu/rt3070/rt2800/rt5370
  • 12.GIMP utility
  • 13.SSH
  • 14.xrdp and vnc
  • 15.HTML5 media player
  • 16.goldendict
  • 17.audacious music player
  • 18.pulseaudio volume control utility
  • 19.USB bluetooth

Debian-Jacer-desktop

11.5 Android(Jacer)

Android(Jacer) is an Android4.4.2 variant developed by a developer "Jacer". It uses Android's desktop. Users need to run this OS with an HDMI monitor and can login to the system via SSH.
FriendlyARM doesn't provide technical support for it.

  • Download image files and utilities

1. Please visit here :download link to download its image file Android(Beelink_X2_v205k4_for_NanoPiM1).
2. Download Windows utility (HDDLLF.4.40) for formatting a TF card.
3. Download Windows utility (PhoenixCard) for flashing Android image files.

  • Make Android TF Card

1. On a Windows PC run the HDDLLF.4.40 utility as administrator. Insert a TF card(at least 4G) into this PC and format it. After formatting is done take out the TF card;
2. Insert it into the PC again and format it with Windows internal format utility to format it to FAT32. After this formatting is done take out the card;
3. Insert the TF card you made in the previous step into a Windows PC and run the PhoenixCard_V310 utility as administrator. On the utility's main window select your TF card's drive, the wanted image file and click on "write" to start flashing the TF card.
Note: none of the above steps should be missed otherwise the TF card you made may not work.

  • Boot Android

1. Insert an installation TF card into an M1, power on the board and you will be able to work with it
Android(Jacer) supports these WiFi cards: rtl8188etv, rt8188eus and rt8189.
Android(Jacer) has the following features:

  • 1. the menu bar can be set hidden; a power button can be added; dynamic frequency scaling is enabled
  • 2. GAAPS
  • 3. it supports rtl8188etv/eus 8189 WiFi cards and CSR bluetooth
  • 4. relative low working voltage and low working temperature

For details about its full features try it by yourself:)
Android-Jacer-desktop

11.6 Armbian

For image download links and instructions visit Armbian's page for the NanoPi M1:armbian-m1
Armbian provides a server and a desktop versions. Here is how the desktop GUI looks like:
Armbian-desktop

11.7 OpenWRT

OpenWRT was migrated to the M1 by one hobbyist "Tom".
FriendlyARM doesn't provide technical support for it.

  • Visit download link to download openwrt-sunxi-NanoPi_M1-sdcard-vfat-ext4.img(unofficail-ROMs directory).
  • Uncompress the file and you will get openwrt-sunxi-NanoPi_M1-sdcard-vfat-ext4.img.
  • Insert a microSD to a host PC running Ubuntu and check the SD card's device name by using the following command
dmesg | tail

Search the messages output by "dmesg" for similar words like "sdc: sdc1 sdc2". If you can find them it means your SD card is recognized as "/dev/sdc". Or you can check that by commanding "cat /proc/partitions"

  • Go to the directory where openwrt-sunxi-NanoPi_M1-sdcard-vfat-ext4.img is located and run the following command to flash the image to your MicroSD card:
dd if=openwrt-sunxi-NanoPi_M1-sdcard-vfat-ext4.img  of=/dev/sdx

(Note: you need to replace "/dev/sdx" with the device name in your system)

  • After it is done insert the card to your board and power on. Here is what you expect to observe.

OpenWRT

12 Download Link to Image Files

  • Image files: [3]

13 3D Housing Printing Files

  • NanoPi M1 3D housing printing files:[4]

3D打印M1

14 Matrix Compact Kit B:A Good Kit for Starters

15 Resources

15.1 User's Manual & Datasheets

15.2 Development Guide

16 Update Log

16.1 March-22-2016

  • Released English Version

16.2 March-29-2016

  • Corrected expression errors

16.3 Apr-02-2016

  • Rewrote sections 4.3, 5, 6 and 8

16.4 Apr-15-2016

  • Added sections 5.10, 5.11, 7 and 9
  • Rewrote sections 5.9, 6.2

16.5 Apr-18-2016

  • Update Features sections, "DDR3 RAM: 512MB" to "DDR3 RAM: 512MB/1GB"
  • Update Board Dimension to 1603B
  • Add dxf file and Schematic of 1603B to Resources section

16.6 July-07-2016

  • Added sections 7, 9.5, 9.6 and 11

16.7 Sep-08-2016

  • Added sections 5.10
  • Updated sections 5.11

16.8 Nov-03-2016

  • Updated section 5.10

16.9 Dec-09-2016

  • Updated section 5.8, 6.1, 8.1 and 8.3
  • Added section 7.3

16.10 Jan-30-2017

  • Added section 6.2, 8.2 and 9.3

16.11 June-4-2017

  • Added section 3: software features
  • Added section 10: setup compiler for user space programs

16.12 June-15-2017

  • Added section 7: UbuntuCore
  • Updated section 10

16.13 July-8-2017

  • Updated section 6.8

16.14 March-28-2018

  • Added section 11.1

16.15 August-1-2018

  • Updated section 10