NanoPi Duo2

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Introduction

Overview
Front
Back
  • The NanoPi Duo2("Duo2") is an ARM board designed and developed by FriendlyELEC for makers and hobbyists. It is only 55 x 25.4mm. It features Allwinner quad-core A7 processor H3, and has 256M/512M DDR3 RAM, onboard WiFi & bluetooth module and an OV5640 camera interface. It works with Linux variants such as Ubuntu Core.
  • The NanoPi Duo2 is tiny and compact with rich interfaces and ports. It takes power input from its MicroUSB port and can be booted from a Micro SD card. It works with general bread-boards. Interface pins such as USB, SPI, UART, I2C, PWM, IR, audio input & output and Fast Ethernet etc are populated.
  • The NanoPi Duo2 supports software utilities such as WiringNP and Python etc. These are all open source. It is suited for various IoT applications.

Hardware Spec

  • CPU: Allwinner H3, Quad-core Cortex-A7 Up to 1.2GHz
  • DDR3 RAM: 512M
  • Connectivity: 10/100M Ethernet
  • WiFi: 802.11b/g/n
  • Bluetooth: Bluetooth V4.0 of 1, 2 and 3 Mbps.
  • Camera: OV5640
  • Key: GPIO Key
  • USB Host: 2.54mm pin x2, exposed in 2.54mm pitch pin header
  • MicroSD Slot x 1
  • MicroUSB: OTG and power input
  • Debug Serial Interface: exposed in 2.54mm pitch pin header
  • Audio input/output Interface: exposed in 2.54mm pitch pin header
  • GPIO1: 2.54mm spacing 16pin. It includes UART, SPI, I2C, Audio etc
  • GPIO2: 2.54mm spacing 16pin. It includes USB,10/100M Ethernet, IO etc
  • PCB Dimension: 25.4 x 55mm
  • Power Supply: DC 5V/2A
  • Temperature measuring range: -40℃ to 80℃
  • OS/Software: U-boot,Linux Kernel 4.11.2 (mainline) , Ubuntu 16.04.2 LTS (Xenial)
  • Weight: xxg(With Pin-headers)

Diagram, Layout and Dimension

Layout

NanoPi Duo2 Layout
pinout
  • GPIO Pin Spec
Pin# GPIO1 Name Linux gpio Pin# GPIO2 Name Linux gpio
1 5V VDD_5V 2 RXD DEBUG_RX(UART_RXD0)/GPIOA5/PWM0 5
3 5V VDD_5V 4 TXD DEBUG_TX(UART_TXD0)/GPIOA4 4
5 3V3 SYS_3.3V 6 GND GND
7 GND GND 8 SCL I2C0_SCL/GPIOA11 11
9 IRRX GPIOL11/IR-RX 363 10 SDA I2C0_SDA/GPIOA12 12
11 PG11 GPIOG11 203 12 CS UART3_TX/SPI1_CS/GPIOA13 13
13 DM3 USB-DM3 14 CLK UART3_RX/SPI1_CLK/GPIOA14 14
15 DP3 USB-DP3 16 MISO UART3_CTS/SPI1_MISO/GPIOA16 16
17 DM2 USB-DM2 18 MOSI UART3_RTS/SPI1_MOSI/GPIOA15 15
19 DP2 USB-DP2 20 RX1 UART1_RX/GPIOG7 199
21 RD- EPHY-RXN 22 TX1 UART1_TX/GPIOG6 198
23 RD+ EPHY-RXP 24 CVBS CVBS
25 TD- EPHY-TXN 26 LL LINEOUT_L
27 TD+ EPHY-TXP 28 LR LINEOUT_R
29 LNK EPHY-LED-LINK 30 MP MIC_P
31 SPD EPHY-LED-SPD 32 MN MIC_N
  • Camera(OV5640)Pin Spec
Pin# Name
1 NC1
2 AGND
3 SIO-D
4 AVDD
5 SIO-C
6 RESER
7 VSYNC
8 PWDN
9 HREF
10 DVDD
11 DOVDD
12 Y9/MDP1
13 XCLK
14 Y8/MDN1
15 DGND
16 Y7/MCP
17 PCLK
18 Y6/MCN
19 Y2
20 Y5/MDP0
21 Y3
22 Y4/MDN0
23 AF-VDD
24 NC2


Note
  1. SYS_3.3V: 3.3V power output
  2. VDD_5V: 5V power input/output. When the external device’s power is greater than the MicroUSB's the external device is charging the board otherwise the board powers the external device. The input range is 4.7V ~ 5.6V.
  3. All pins are 3.3V, output current is 5mA.
  4. For more details refer to :NanoPi Duo2 Schematic

Dimensional Diagram

NanoPi-Duo2-V1.0 1807-dimensions.png

For more details refer to :NanoPi_Duo2_V1.0_1807 pcb in dxf format

Get Started

Essentials You Need

Before starting to use your NanoPi NEO get the following items ready

  • NanoPi Duo2
  • microSD Card/TFCard: Class 10 or Above, minimum 8GB SDHC
  • microUSB power. A 5V/2A power is a must
  • A Host computer running Ubuntu 16.04 64 bit system
  • A serial communication board

TF Cards We Tested

To make your NanoPi Duo2 boot and run fast we highly recommend you use a Class10 8GB SDHC TF card or a better one. The following cards are what we used in all our test cases presented here:

  • SanDisk TF 8G Class10 Micro/SD TF card:

SanDisk MicroSD 8G

  • SanDisk TF128G MicroSDXC TF 128G Class10 48MB/S:

SanDisk MicroSD 128G

  • 川宇 8G C10 High Speed class10 micro SD card:

chuanyu MicroSD 8G

Install OS

Get Image Files

Visit this link download link to download image files (under the official-ROMs directory) and the flashing utility(under the tools directory):

Image Files:
nanopi-duo2_sd_friendlycore-xenial_4.14_armhf_YYYYMMDD.img.zip FriendlyCore (base on UbuntuCore) Image File, Kernel: Linux-4.14
Flash Utility:
win32diskimager.rar Windows utility for flashing Debian image. Under Linux users can use "dd"

Linux

Boot from TF
  • FriendlyCore / Debian / Ubuntu are all based on a same Linux distribution and their installation methods are the same.
  • Extract the Linux image and win32diskimager.rar files. Insert a TF card(at least 8G) into a Windows PC and run the win32diskimager utility as administrator. On the utility's main window select your TF card's drive, the wanted image file and click on "write" to start flashing the TF card.
  • Insert this card into your board's BOOT slot and power on (with a 5V/2A power source). If the PWR LED is on and the STAT LED is blinking this indicates your board has successfully booted.

Work with NanoPi Duo2 IoT-Box Carrier Board

FriendlyELEC developed a dedicated carrier board: NanoPi Duo2 IoT-Box. For more details about this carrier board refer to: Introduction to NanoPi Duo2 IoT-Box. How is a hardware setup:
NanoPi Duo2 IoT-Box_NanoPi_Duo2

Work with FriendlyCore

Introduction

FriendlyCore is a light Linux system without X-windows, based on ubuntu core, It uses the Qt-Embedded's GUI and is popular in industrial and enterprise applications.

Besides the regular Ubuntu core's features our FriendlyCore has the following additional features:

  • it supports our LCDs with both capacitive touch and resistive touch(S700, X710, HD702, S430, HD101 and S70)
  • it supports WiFi
  • it supports Ethernet
  • it supports Bluetooth and has been installed with bluez utilities
  • it supports audio playing
  • it supports Qt 5.10.0 EGLES and OpenGL ES1.1/2.0 (Only for S5P4418/S5P6818)

FriendlyCore's User Accounts

  • If your board is connected to an HDMI monitor you need to use a USB mouse and keyboard.
  • If you want to do kernel development you need to use a serial communication board, ie a PSU-ONECOM board, which will

You can use a USB to Serial conversion board too.
Make sure you use a 5V/2A power to power your board from its MicroUSB port:
USB2UART-Duo2.jpg

  • FriendlyCore User Accounts:

Non-root User:

   User Name: pi
   Password: pi

Root:

   User Name: root
   Password: fa

The system is automatically logged in as "pi". You can do "sudo npi-config" to disable auto login.

  • Update packages
$ sudo apt-get update

Configure System with npi-config

The npi-config is a commandline utility which can be used to initialize system configurations such as user password, system language, time zone, Hostname, SSH switch , Auto login and etc. Type the following command to run this utility.

$ sudo npi-config

Here is how npi-config's GUI looks like:
npi-config

Develop Qt Application

Please refer to: How to Build and Install Qt Application for FriendlyELEC Boards

Setup Program to AutoRun

You can setup a program to autorun on system boot with npi-config:

sudo npi-config

Go to Boot Options -> Autologin -> Qt/Embedded, select Enable and reboot.

Extend TF Card's Section

When FriendlyCore is loaded the TF card's section will be automatically extended.You can check the section's size by running the following command:

$ df -h

WiFi

For either an SD WiFi or a USB WiFi you can connect it to your board in the same way. The APXX series WiFi chips are SD WiFi chips. By default FriendlyElec's system supports most popular USB WiFi modules. Here is a list of the USB WiFi modules we tested:

Index Model
1 RTL8188CUS/8188EU 802.11n WLAN Adapter
2 RT2070 Wireless Adapter
3 RT2870/RT3070 Wireless Adapter
4 RTL8192CU Wireless Adapter
5 mi WiFi mt7601

You can use the NetworkManager utility to manage network. You can run "nmcli" in the commandline utility to start it. Here are the commands to start a WiFi connection:

  • Change to root
$ su root
  • Check device list
$ nmcli dev

Note: if the status of a device is "unmanaged" it means that device cannot be accessed by NetworkManager. To make it accessed you need to clear the settings under "/etc/network/interfaces" and reboot your system.

  • Start WiFi
$ nmcli r wifi on
  • Scan Surrounding WiFi Sources
$ nmcli dev wifi
  • Connect to a WiFi Source
$ nmcli dev wifi connect "SSID" password "PASSWORD" ifname wlan0

The "SSID" and "PASSWORD" need to be replaced with your actual SSID and password.If you have multiple WiFi devices you need to specify the one you want to connect to a WiFi source with iface
If a connection succeeds it will be automatically setup on next system reboot.

For more details about NetworkManager refer to this link: Use NetworkManager to configure network settings

If your USB WiFi module doesn't work most likely your system doesn't have its driver. For a Debian system you can get a driver from Debian-WiFi and install it on your system. For a Ubuntu system you can install a driver by running the following commands:

$ apt-get install linux-firmware

In general all WiFi drivers are located at the "/lib/firmware" directory.

Setup Wi-Fi Hotspot

Run the following command to enter AP mode:

$ su root
$ turn-wifi-into-apmode yes

You will be prompted to type your WiFi hotspot's name and password and then proceed with default prompts.
After this is done you will be able to find this hotspot in a neadby cell phone or PC. You can login to this board at 192.168.8.1:

$ ssh root@192.168.8.1

When asked to type a password you can type "fa".

To speed up your ssh login you can turn off your wifi by running the following command:

$ iwconfig wlan0 power off

To switch back to Station mode run the following command:

$ turn-wifi-into-apmode no

Bluetooth

Search for surrounding bluetooth devices by running the following command:

$ su root
$ hciconfig hci0 up
$ hcitool scan

You can run "hciconfig" to check bluetooth's status.

Ethernet Connection

If a board is connected to a network via Ethernet before it is powered on it will automatically obtain an IP with DHCP activated after it is powered up. If you want to set up a static IP refer to: Use NetworkManager to configure network settings

WiringPi and Python Wrapper

Set Audio Device

If your system has multiple audio devices such as HDMI-Audio, 3.5mm audio jack and I2S-Codec you can set system's default audio device by running the following commands.

  • After your board is booted run the following commands to install alsa packages:
$ apt-get update
$ apt-get install libasound2
$ apt-get install alsa-base
$ apt-get install alsa-utils
  • After installation is done you can list all the audio devices by running the following command. Here is a similar list you may see after you run the command:
$ aplay -l
card 0: HDMI
card 1: 3.5mm codec
card 2: I2S codec

"card 0" is HDMI-Audio, "card 1" is 3.5mm audio jack and "card 2" is I2S-Codec. You can set default audio device to HDMI-Audio by changing the "/etc/asound.conf" file as follows:

pcm.!default {
    type hw
    card 0
    device 0
}
 
ctl.!default {
    type hw
    card 0
}

If you change "card 0" to "card 1" the 3.5mm audio jack will be set to the default device.
Copy a .wav file to your board and test it by running the following command:

$ aplay /root/Music/test.wav

You will hear sounds from system's default audio device.
If you are using H3/H5/H2+ series board with mainline kernel, the easier way is using npi-config

Connect to DVP Camera OV5640

For NanoPi-Duo2 the OV5640 can work with Linux-4.14 Kernel.
The NanoPi-Duo2 has support for OV5640 cameras and you can directly connect an OV5640 camera to the board. Here is a hardware setup:
duo2-ov5640

connect your board to camera module. Then boot OS, connect your board to a network, log into the board as root and run "mjpg-streamer":

$ cd /root/mjpg-streamer
$ make
$ ./start.sh

You need to change the start.sh script and make sure it uses a correct /dev/videoX node. You can check your camera's node by running the following commands:

$ apt-get install v4l-utils
$ v4l2-ctl -d /dev/video0 -D
Driver Info (not using libv4l2):
        Driver name   : sun6i-video
        Card type     : sun6i-csi
        Bus info      : platform:camera
        Driver version: 4.14.0
	...

The above messages indicate that "/dev/video0" is camera's device node.The mjpg-streamer application is an open source video steam server. After it is successfully started the following messages will be popped up:

 
$ ./start.sh
 i: Using V4L2 device.: /dev/video0
 i: Desired Resolution: 1280 x 720
 i: Frames Per Second.: 30
 i: Format............: YUV
 i: JPEG Quality......: 90
 o: www-folder-path...: ./www/
 o: HTTP TCP port.....: 8080
 o: username:password.: disabled
 o: commands..........: enabled

start.sh runs the following two commands:

export LD_LIBRARY_PATH="$(pwd)"
./mjpg_streamer -i "./input_uvc.so -d /dev/video0 -y 1 -r 1280x720 -f 30 -q 90 -n -fb 0" -o "./output_http.so -w ./www"

Here are some details for mjpg_streamer's major options:
-i: input device. For example "input_uvc.so" means it takes input from a camera;
-o: output device. For example "output_http.so" means the it transmits data via http;
-d: input device's subparameter. It defines a camera's device node;
-y: input device's subparameter. It defines a camera's data format: 1:yuyv, 2:yvyu, 3:uyvy 4:vyuy. If this option isn't defined MJPEG will be set as the data format;
-r: input device's subparameter. It defines a camera's resolution;
-f: input device's subparameter. It defines a camera's fps. But whether this fps is supported depends on its driver;
-q: input device's subparameter. It defines the quality of an image generated by libjpeg soft-encoding;
-n: input device's subparameter. It disables the dynctrls function;
-fb: input device's subparameter. It specifies whether an input image is displayed at "/dev/fbX";
-w: output device's subparameter. It defines a directory to hold web pages;

In our case the board's IP address was 192.168.1.230. We typed 192.168.1.230:8080 in a browser and were able to view the images taken from the camera's. Here is what you would expect to observe:
mjpg-streamer-cam500a
The mjpg-streamer utility uses libjpeg to software-encode steam data. The Linux-4.14 based ROM currently doesn't support hardware-encoding. If you use a H3 boards with Linux-3.4 based ROM you can use the ffmpeg utility to hardware-encode stream data and this can greatly release CPU's resources and speed up encoding:

$ ffmpeg -t 30 -f v4l2 -channel 0 -video_size 1280x720 -i /dev/video0 -pix_fmt nv12 -r 30 \
        -b:v 64k -c:v cedrus264 test.mp4

By default it records a 30-second video. Typing "q" stops video recording. After recording is stopped a test.mp4 file will be generated.

Connect to USB Camera(FA-CAM202)

The FA-CAM202 is a 200M USB camera. You can refer to <Connect DVP Camera (CAM500B) to Board> on how to connect a USB camera to a board.
You need to change the start.sh script and make sure it uses a correct /dev/videoX node. You can check your FA-CAM202's node by running the following commands:

$ apt-get install v4l-utils
$ v4l2-ctl -d /dev/video1 -D
Driver Info (not using libv4l2):
        Driver name   : uvcvideo
        Card type     : HC 3358+2100: HC 3358+2100
        Bus info      : usb-1c1b000.usb-1
	...

Check CPU's Working Temperature

You can get CPU's working temperature by running the following command:

$ cpu_freq
CPU0 online=1 temp=26581 governor=ondemand cur_freq=480000
CPU1 online=1 temp=26581 governor=ondemand cur_freq=480000
CPU2 online=1 temp=26581 governor=ondemand cur_freq=480000
CPU3 online=1 temp=26581 governor=ondemand cur_freq=480000

This message means there are currently four CPUs working. All of their working temperature is 26.5 degree in Celsius and each one's clock is 480MHz.

Test Watchdog

You can test watchdog by running the following commands:

$ cd /root/demo/watchdog/
$ gcc watchdog_demo.c -o watchdog_demo
$ ./watchdog_demo /dev/watchdog0 10
Set timeout: 10 seconds
Get timeout: 10 seconds
System will reboot in 10 second

System will reboot in 10 seconds.

Test Infrared Receiver

Note: Please Check your board if IR receiver exist.
By default the infrared function is disabled you can enable it by using the npi-config utility:

$ npi-config
    6 Advanced Options     Configure advanced settings
        A8 IR              Enable/Disable IR
            ir Enable/Disable ir[enabled]

Reboot your system and test its infrared function by running the following commands:

$ apt-get install ir-keytable
$ echo "+rc-5 +nec +rc-6 +jvc +sony +rc-5-sz +sanyo +sharp +mce_kbd +xmp" > /sys/class/rc/rc0/protocols   # Enable infrared
$ ir-keytable -t
Testing events. Please, press CTRL-C to abort.

"ir-keytable -t" is used to check whether the receiver receives infrared signals. You can use a remote control to send infrared signals to the receiver. If it works you will see similar messages as follows:

1522404275.767215: event type EV_MSC(0x04): scancode = 0xe0e43
1522404275.767215: event type EV_SYN(0x00).
1522404278.911267: event type EV_MSC(0x04): scancode = 0xe0e42
1522404278.911267: event type EV_SYN(0x00).

Read CHIP ID

As for Allwinner H2+/H3/H5/ SoCs each of these CPUs has an internal 16-btye CHIP ID which can be read by running the following commands in the Linux-4.14 kernel:

$ apt-get install bsdmainutils
$ hexdump /sys/bus/nvmem/devices/sunxi-sid0/nvmem 
0000000 8082 0447 0064 04c3 3650 ce0a 1e28 2202
0000010 0002 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000
0000020 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000
0000030 0000 0008 0508 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000
0000040 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000

"8082 0447 0064 04c3 3650 ce0a 1e28 2202" is the 16-byte CHIP ID.

Access GPIO Pins/Wirings with WiringNP

The wiringPi library was initially developed by Gordon Henderson in C. It contains libraries to access GPIO, I2C, SPI, UART, PWM and etc. The wiringPi library contains various libraries, header files and a commandline utility:gpio. The gpio utility can be used to read and write GPIO pins.
FriendlyElec integrated this utility in FriendlyCore system allowing users to easily access GPIO pins. For more details refer to WiringNP WiringNP


Make Your Own FriendlyCore

Use Linux-4.14 BSP

For now the NanoPi Duo2 only works with the Linux-4.14 kernel. Users can run our H3 based boards with mainline U-boot and Linux-4.14. For more details refer to :Building U-boot and Linux for H5/H3/H2+

Resources

Datasheets & Schematics

Hardware Update Versions

V1.0 1807

First Version


Update Log

Oct-10-2018

  • Released English Version