NanoPi Duo

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Introduction

概览
正面
背面
  • The NanoPi Duo is designed and developed by FriendlyElec for makers, hobbyists and professionals. It is small, just 50 x 25.4 mm. It uses Allwinner’s Cortex-A7 H2+ SoC. It has 256M/512M DDR3 RAM and an onboard WiFi module. A UbuntuCore image is ready for it.
  • On such a small board rich interfaces such as Ethernet, USB, SPI, UART, I2C, PWM, IR and audio are exposed. It is powered from a MicroUSB port and boots OS from a MicroSD card.
  • Popular libraries and utilities: WiringPi, RPi.GPIO and Python are ported to the NanoPi Duo’s system and they all are open source. The NanoPi Duo perfectly suits various light-weight IoT applications.

Hardware Spec

  • CPU: Allwinner H2+, Quad-core Cortex-A7
  • DDR3 RAM: 256MB/512MB
  • Connectivity: 10/100M Ethernet
  • Wifi:XR819
  • USB Host: 2.54mm pin x2, exposed in 2.54mm pitch pin header
  • MicroSD Slot x 1
  • MicroUSB: OTG and power input
  • Debug Serial Interface: exposed in 2.54mm pitch pin header
  • Audio input/output Interface: exposed in 2.54mm pitch pin header
  • GPIO: 2.54mm spacing 12pin x2. It includes UART, SPI, I2C, IO etc
  • PCB Dimension: 25.4 x 50mm
  • Power Supply: DC 5V/2A
  • Temperature measuring range: -40℃ to 80℃
  • OS/Software: U-boot,Linux Kernel 4.11.2 (mainline) , Ubuntu 16.04.2 LTS (Xenial)
  • Weight: xxg(With Pin-headers)

Software Features

uboot

  • uboot

Ubuntu 16.04

  • mainline kernel: Linux-4.11.2
  • Ubuntu 16.04.2
  • rpi-monitor: check system status and information
  • npi-config: system configuration utility for setting passwords, language, timezone, hostname, SSH and auto-login, and enabling/disabling i2c, spi, serial and PWM
  • software utility: wiringNP to access GPIO pins
  • software utility: RPi.GPIO_NP to access GPIO pins
  • networkmanager: manage networks
  • system log output from serial port
  • nano editor
  • welcome window with basic system information and status
  • auto-login with user account "pi" with access to npi-config
  • sudoers include "fa"
  • on first system boot file system will be automatically extended.
  • supports file system auto check and repair on system boot.
  • supports audio recording and playing with 3.5mm audio jack
  • supports USB Host and 100M Ethernet
  • fixed MAC address

Diagram, Layout and Dimension

Layout

NanoPi Duo Layout
pinout
  • GPIO Pin Description
Pin silk screen Name Linux gpio Pin silk screen Name Linux gpio
MICN MIC_N SPD EPHY-LED-SPD
MICP MIC_P LNK EPHY-LED-LINK
LOR LINEOUT_R TD+ EPHY-TXP
LOL LINEOUT_L TD- EPHY-TXN
CVB CVBS RD+ EPHY-RXP
TX1 UART1_TX/GPIOG6 198 RD- EPHY-RXN
RX1 UART1_RX/GPIOG7 199 DP2 USB-DP2
MO UART3_RTS/SPI1_MOSI/GPIOA15 15 DM2 USB-DM2
MI UART3_CTS/SPI1_MISO/GPIOA16 16 DP3 USB-DP3
CLK UART3_RX/SPI1_CLK/GPIOA14 14 DM3 USB-DM3
CS UART3_TX/SPI1_CS/GPIOA13 13 IOG11 GPIOG11 203
SDA I2C0_SDA/GPIOA12 12 IRRX GPIOL11/IR-RX 363
SCL I2C0_SCL/GPIOA11 11 GND GND
GND GND 3V3 SYS_3.3V
DTX DEBUG_TX(UART_TXD0)/GPIOA4 4 5Vin VDD_5V
DRX DEBUG_RX(UART_RXD0)/GPIOA5/PWM0 5 5Vin VDD_5V


Note:
  1. SYS_3.3V: 3.3V power output
  2. VDD_5V: 5V power input/output. When the external device’s voltage is greater than the MicroUSB's voltage the external device is powering the board,
otherwise the board powers the external device. The input range is 4.7V ~ 5.6V
  1. All pins are 3.3V, output current is 5mA
  2. For more details refer to the document NanoPi Duo Schematic

Dimensional Diagram

NanoPi-Duo-1606-dimensions.png

For more details refer to the document NanoPi_Duo_v1.0_1706 pcb file in dxf format

Get Started

Essentials You Need

Before starting to use your NanoPi Duo get the following items ready

  • NanoPi Duo
  • microSD Card/TFCard: Class 10 or Above, minimum 8GB SDHC
  • microUSB power. A 5V/2A power is a must
  • A Host computer running Ubuntu 16.04 64 bit system
  • a serial communication board

TF Cards We Tested

To make your NanoPi Duo boot and run fast we highly recommend you use a Class10 8GB SDHC TF card or better. The following cards are what we used in all our test cases presented here:

  • SanDisk TF 8G Class10 Micro/SD TF card:

SanDisk MicroSD 8G

  • SanDisk TF128G MicroSDXC TF 128G Class10 48MB/S:

SanDisk MicroSD 128G

  • 川宇 8G C10 High Speed class10 micro SD card:

chuanyu MicroSD 8G

Install OS

Download Image Files

Get the following files from here download link to download image files (under the official-ROMs directory) and the flashing utility (under the tools directory):

Image Files:
nanopi-duo_friendlycore-xenial_4.x.y_YYYYMMDD.img.zip FriendlyCore (base on UbuntuCore) Image File, kernel:Linux-4.x.y
Flash Utility:
win32diskimager.rar Windows utility. Under Linux users can use "dd"

Linux

Boot from TF
  • FriendlyCore / Debian / Ubuntu are all based on a same Linux distribution and their installation methods are the same.
  • Extract the Linux image and win32diskimager.rar files. Insert a TF card(at least 8G) into a Windows PC and run the win32diskimager utility as administrator. On the utility's main window select your TF card's drive, the wanted image file and click on "write" to start flashing the TF card.
  • Insert this card into your board's BOOT slot and power on (with a 5V/2A power source). If the PWR LED is on and the STAT LED is blinking this indicates your board has successfully booted.

NanoPi Duo can work with FriendlyElec's Mini Shield

The NanoPi Duo can work with FriendlyElec's Mini Shield for NanoPi Duo. Here is link to the wiki site of Mini Shield for NanoPi Duo Mini Shield for NanoPi Duo. Here is a hardware setup.
Mini Shield for NanoPi Duo-Duo

Work with FriendlyCore

Introduction

FriendlyCore is a light Linux system without X-windows, based on ubuntu core, It uses the Qt-Embedded's GUI and is popular in industrial and enterprise applications.

Besides the regular Ubuntu core's features our FriendlyCore has the following additional features:

  • it supports our LCDs with both capacitive touch and resistive touch(S700, X710, HD702, S430, HD101 and S70)
  • it supports WiFi
  • it supports Ethernet
  • it supports Bluetooth and has been installed with bluez utilities
  • it supports audio playing
  • it supports Qt 5.10.0 EGLES and OpenGL ES1.1/2.0 (Only for S5P4418/S5P6818)

FriendlyCore's User Accounts

  • If your board is connected to an HDMI monitor you need to use a USB mouse and keyboard.
  • If you want to do kernel development you need to use a serial communication board, ie a PSU-ONECOM board, which will

For example, NanoPi-M1:
PSU-ONECOM-M1.jpg
You can use a USB to Serial conversion board too.
Make sure you use a 5V/2A power to power your board from its MicroUSB port:
USB2UART-Duo.jpg

  • FriendlyCore User Accounts:

Non-root User:

   User Name: pi
   Password: pi

Root:

   User Name: root
   Password: fa

The system is automatically logged in as "pi". You can do "sudo npi-config" to disable auto login.

  • Update packages
$ sudo apt-get update

Configure System with npi-config

The npi-config is a commandline utility which can be used to initialize system configurations such as user password, system language, time zone, Hostname, SSH switch , Auto login and etc. Type the following command to run this utility.

$ sudo npi-config

Here is how npi-config's GUI looks like:
npi-config

Develop Qt Application

Please refer to: How to Build and Install Qt Application for FriendlyELEC Boards

Setup Program to AutoRun

You can setup a program to autorun on system boot with npi-config:

sudo npi-config

Go to Boot Options -> Autologin -> Qt/Embedded, select Enable and reboot.

Extend TF Card's Section

When FriendlyCore is loaded the TF card's section will be automatically extended.You can check the section's size by running the following command:

$ df -h

WiFi

For either an SD WiFi or a USB WiFi you can connect it to your board in the same way. The APXX series WiFi chips are SD WiFi chips. By default FriendlyElec's system supports most popular USB WiFi modules. Here is a list of the USB WiFi modules we tested:

Index Model
1 RTL8188CUS/8188EU 802.11n WLAN Adapter
2 RT2070 Wireless Adapter
3 RT2870/RT3070 Wireless Adapter
4 RTL8192CU Wireless Adapter
5 mi WiFi mt7601

You can use the NetworkManager utility to manage network. You can run "nmcli" in the commandline utility to start it. Here are the commands to start a WiFi connection:

  • Check device list
sudo nmcli dev

Note: if the status of a device is "unmanaged" it means that device cannot be accessed by NetworkManager. To make it accessed you need to clear the settings under "/etc/network/interfaces" and reboot your system.

  • Start WiFi
sudo nmcli r wifi on
  • Scan Surrounding WiFi Sources
sudo nmcli dev wifi
  • Connect to a WiFi Source
sudo nmcli dev wifi connect "SSID" password "PASSWORD" ifname wlan0

The "SSID" and "PASSWORD" need to be replaced with your actual SSID and password.If you have multiple WiFi devices you need to specify the one you want to connect to a WiFi source with iface
If a connection succeeds it will be automatically setup on next system reboot.

For more details about NetworkManager refer to this link: Use NetworkManager to configure network settings

If your USB WiFi module doesn't work most likely your system doesn't have its driver. For a Debian system you can get a driver from Debian-WiFi and install it on your system. For a Ubuntu system you can install a driver by running the following commands:

$ sudo apt-get install linux-firmware

In general all WiFi drivers are located at the "/lib/firmware" directory.


Ethernet Connection

If a board is connected to a network via Ethernet before it is powered on it will automatically obtain an IP with DHCP activated after it is powered up. If you want to set up a static IP refer to: Use NetworkManager to configure network settings

Set Audio Device

If your system has multiple audio devices such as HDMI-Audio, 3.5mm audio jack and I2S-Codec you can set system's default audio device by running the following commands.

  • After your board is booted run the following commands to install alsa packages:
$ apt-get update
$ apt-get install libasound2
$ apt-get install alsa-base
$ apt-get install alsa-utils
  • After installation is done you can list all the audio devices by running the following command. Here is a similar list you may see after you run the command:
$ aplay -l
card 0: HDMI
card 1: 3.5mm codec
card 2: I2S codec

"card 0" is HDMI-Audio, "card 1" is 3.5mm audio jack and "card 2" is I2S-Codec. You can set default audio device to HDMI-Audio by changing the "/etc/asound.conf" file as follows:

pcm.!default {
    type hw
    card 0
    device 0
}
 
ctl.!default {
    type hw
    card 0
}

If you change "card 0" to "card 1" the 3.5mm audio jack will be set to the default device.
Copy a .wav file to your board and test it by running the following command:

$ aplay /root/Music/test.wav

You will hear sounds from system's default audio device.
If you are using H3/H5/H2+ series board with mainline kernel, the easier way is using npi-config


Connect to USB Camera(FA-CAM202)

The FA-CAM202 is a 200M USB camera. You can refer to <Connect DVP Camera (CAM500B) to Board> on how to connect a USB camera to a board.
You need to change the start.sh script and make sure it uses a correct /dev/videoX node. You can check your FA-CAM202's node by running the following commands:

$ apt-get install v4l-utils
$ v4l2-ctl -d /dev/video1 -D
Driver Info (not using libv4l2):
        Driver name   : uvcvideo
        Card type     : HC 3358+2100: HC 3358+2100
        Bus info      : usb-1c1b000.usb-1
	...

Check CPU's Working Temperature with Commandline Utility

You can get CPU's working temperature by running the following command in a commandline utility:

$ cpu_freq
CPU0 online=1 temp=26581 governor=ondemand cur_freq=480000
CPU1 online=1 temp=26581 governor=ondemand cur_freq=480000
CPU2 online=1 temp=26581 governor=ondemand cur_freq=480000
CPU3 online=1 temp=26581 governor=ondemand cur_freq=480000

This message means there are currently four CPUs working. All of their working temperature is 26.5 degree in Celsius and each one's clock is 480MHz.

Test Watchdog

You can test watchdog by running the following commands:

$ cd /root/demo/watchdog/
$ gcc watchdog_demo.c -o watchdog_demo
$ ./watchdog_demo /dev/watchdog0 10
Set timeout: 10 seconds
Get timeout: 10 seconds
System will reboot in 10 second

System will reboot in 10 seconds.

Test Infrared Receiver

Note: this only applies to boards(such as NanoPi M1, NanoPi M1 Plus and etc) that have an infrared receiver. If you want to test boards(such as NanoPi NEO, NanoPi NEO Air and etc) that don't have an infrared receiver but have infrared pins you need to connect an infrared module to pin GPIOL11.
By default the infrared function is disabled you can enable it by using the npi-config utility:

$ npi-config
    6 Advanced Options     Configure advanced settings
        A8 IR              Enable/Disable IR
            ir Enable/Disable ir[enabled]

Reboot your system and test its infrared function by running the following commands:

$ apt-get install ir-keytable
$ echo "+rc-5 +nec +rc-6 +jvc +sony +rc-5-sz +sanyo +sharp +mce_kbd +xmp" > /sys/class/rc/rc0/protocols   # Enable infrared
$ ir-keytable -t
Testing events. Please, press CTRL-C to abort.

"ir-keytable -t" is used to check whether the receiver receives infrared signals. You can use a remote control to send infrared signals to the receiver. If it works you will see similar messages as follows:

1522404275.767215: event type EV_MSC(0x04): scancode = 0xe0e43
1522404275.767215: event type EV_SYN(0x00).
1522404278.911267: event type EV_MSC(0x04): scancode = 0xe0e42
1522404278.911267: event type EV_SYN(0x00).

Access GPIO Pins/Wirings with WiringNP

The wiringPi library was initially developed by Gordon Henderson in C. It contains libraries to access GPIO, I2C, SPI, UART, PWM and etc. The wiringPi library contains various libraries, header files and a commandline utility:gpio. The gpio utility can be used to read and write GPIO pins.
FriendlyElec integrated this utility in FriendlyCore system allowing users to easily access GPIO pins. For more details refer to WiringNP WiringNP

Run Qt Demo

Run the following command

$ sudo /opt/QtE-Demo/run.sh

Here is what you expect to observe. This is an open source Qt Demo:
K2-QtE

Boot System from SSD

A NanoPi-Duo can be booted from the SSD on a Mini Shield for NanoPi Duo. Booting OS from an SSD has the following benefits:
1) faster read/write;
2) much longer life time than a TF card;
3) more reliable than booting from a TF card;

You can install an OS to SSD by using the npi-config utility. Here are the steps to follow:

sudo npi-config

Enter the "Boot Options" menu, go to "Boot device" and you will see two options:
1) D1 Hard drive
2) D2 TF card
Select "D1 Hard drive" and proceed with its prompts.
Select "D2 TF card" to boot OS from a TF card.

If your npi-config doesn't have a "Boot device" menu it might be that your npi-config is out of date and you can update it by selecting "Update" in the menu.

Make Your Own FriendlyCore

Use Mainline BSP

The NanoPi Duo has support for kernel Linux-4.x.y with Ubuntu Core 16.04. For more details about how to use mainline u-boot and Linux-4.x.y refer to :Mainline U-boot & Linux

Connect External Modules to Duo

Connect Mini Shield for NanoPi NEO Duo to Duo

3D Printing Files

Resources

Schematics & Datasheets

Update Log

July-17-2017

  • Released English Version

August-12-2017

  • Updated section 1

August-29-2017

  • Added section 3

Sep-3-2017

  • Corrected spelling and grammar errors

Nov-9-2017

  • Added section 6.11